An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 932
acoustic
  صدایی، صداییک   
sedâyi, sedâyik

Fr.: acoustique   

Pertaining to the sense of hearing, or to → sound waves.

acoustics.

acoustic peak
  ستیغ ِ صداییک   
setiq-e sedâyik

Fr.: pic acoustique   

One of several peaks appearing in the → CMB angular power spectrum of the → cosmic microwave background radiation which are ripples left by acoustic oscillations of the plasma-radiation fluid in the early Universe (→ baryon acoustic oscillations). When the Universe was small and very hot, the free electron density was so high that photons could not propagate freely without being scattered by electrons. Ionized matter, electrons and radiation formed a single fluid, with the inertia provided by the baryons and the radiation pressure given by the photons.

acoustic; → peak.

acoustic pressure
  فشار ِ صدا   
fešâr-e sedâ

Fr.: pression acoustique   

Same as → sound pressure.

acoustic; → pressure.

acoustic wave
  موج ِ صدایی   
mowj-e sedâyi

Fr.: onde acoustique, ~ sonore   

A type of → longitudinal wave that consists of mechanical → vibrations of small → amplitude propagated in an → elastic medium. Acoustic waves exhibit phenomena like → diffraction, → reflection, and → interference, but not → polarization. Also called → sonic and → sound waves. See also → acoustic wave equation. The branch of physics concerned with the properties of sonic waves is called → acoustics.

acoustic; → wave.

acoustic wave equation
  هموگش ِ موج ِ صدایی   
hamugeš-e mowj-e sedâyi

Fr.: équation de l'onde acoustique   

A → differential equation that describes the time evolution of the → scalar potential of the field φ. It is expressed by: ∇2φ = (1/c2)∂2φ/∂t2, where c is → velocity of → longitudinal waves and ∇2 is the → Laplacian operator.

acoustic; → wave; → equation.

acoustics
  صداییک، صداشناسی   
sedâyik, sedâšenâsi

Fr.: acoustique   

1) The study of sound, especially of its generation, propagation, and reception.
2) Those qualities of an enclosure that together determine its character with respect to distinct hearing.

From Fr. acoustique, from Gk. akoustikos "pertaining to hearing," from akoustos "heard, audible," from akouein "to hear," from copulative prefix a- + koein "to mark, perceive, hear," from PIE root *(s)keu- "to notice, observe."

Sedâyik from sedâ "sound" + Pers. suffix -ik, → -ics. Sedâ is most probably Persian, since it exists also in Indo-Aryan languages: Skt. (late Vedic): sabda "articulate sound, noise," Pali and Prakriti: sadda "sound, noise," Sindhi: sadu, sado "shout, call," Gujrâti sad "call, voice, echo," Marathi: sad "shouting to," Konkani sad "sound," Sinhali: sada "sound." Therefore, sadâ in Arabic "reverbrating noise, echo" may be borrowed from Persian, or a coincidence. Note that for the author of the classical Persian dictionary Borhân-e Qâte' (India, 1652 A.D.), the Arabic term is a loanword from Persian.

phone; →phonetics.

acronical
  شامگاهی   
šâmgâhi

Fr.: acronyque   

Relating to or occurring at sunset. → heliacal

Acronical, from Gk. akronukos, from akros "tip, end," cf. Av. aγra- "top, first," Skt. agra- "first, foremost, climax" + nuks, nuktos "night," → night.

Šâmgâhi, adj. of šâmgâh "evening," from šâm "evening, evening meal" + gâh "time." The first component, šâm, from Mid.Pers. šâm "evening meal, supper," from Av. xšāfnya- "evening meal," from Av. xšap-, xšapā-, xšapan-, xšafn- "night" (O.Pers. xšap- "night," Mid.Pers. šap, Mod.Pers. šab "night"); cf. Skt. ksap- "nigh, darkness;" Hittite ispant- "night." The second component gâh "time," Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time," O.Pers. gāθu-, Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come."

acronical rising
  بر‌آیش ِ شامگاهی   
barâyeš-e šâmgâhi

Fr.: lever acronyque   

The rising of a star in the sky at or just after sunset. → heliacal rising.

acronical; → rising.

acronical setting
  فروشد ِ شامگاهی   
forušod-e šâmgâhi

Fr.: coucher acronyque   

The setting of a star at nightfall. → heliacal setting.

acronical; → setting.

Acrux
  اکروکس   
Akruks

Fr.: Acrux   

A southern hemisphere bright star (α Crucis) of magnitude 0.77 lying at a distance of 321 → light-years. It is apparently made up of three components. The primary component, Acrux A, is a blue subgiant of apparent magnitude 1.34 and spectral type B0.5 IV. The B component lies at about 4.1 arcsec away from the A component, which represents a distance of at least 400 AU, that is, more than 10 times the distance between the sun and planet Pluto. The C component lies about 90 arcsec away from A.

Acrux, from A, from Alpha, designating the brightest star of the constellation + crux, the constellation name. The name Acrux is probably a coinage of the American astronomer, Elijah H. Burritt, who published several editions of an astronomical atlas between 1833 and 1856.

act
  ژیر؛ ژیریدن   
žir (n.); žiridan (v.)

Fr.: acte, action; agir   

1) The process of doing or performing something; something done or performed.
2) (v.intr.) To carry out an action; to produce an effect.

Act, from O.Fr. acte, from L. actus "a doing" and actum "a thing done," both from agere "to do, set in motion, drive, urge, chase, stir up," from PIE root *ag- "to drive, draw out or forth, move" (cf. Gk. agein "to lead, guide, drive, carry off," agon "assembly, contest in the games," agogos "leader;" Av. az- "to drive (away)," azaiti "drives," Mod.Pers. govâz "stick for driving cattle," from Av. gauuāza-, from gao- "cow, ox, cattle" (→ Bootes) + āza-, from az-, as above; Skt. aj- "to drive, sling," ájati "drives," ajirá- "agile, quick." The E. agile "characterized by quickness, lightness, and ease of movement; mentally quick or alert" is from this root.

In major European languages there are two fundamental and very close verbs which convey "work, action, activity". These are: 1) to do (in French faire, Spanish hacer, German machen) and 2) to act (French agir, Spanish actuar, German handeln). In Persian there is only one word for these two concepts: kardan; and this is obviously a big handicap. An ad hoc equivalent for action has therefore been koneš, from kardan "to do." The problem is that this solution, despite being widely used, confounds "to do" with "to act," and is incapable of forming all the related derivatives. Therefore, we propose žir, which derives from Av. žirā- "active, agile, clever;" Mid.Pers. žir, zir "active, busy" (loaned in Arm. žir "active, busy, clear"), Mod.Pers. zirak "clever, alert, intelligent;" Kurd. žir "agile," žiri "agility."

actinide
  اکتینید   
aktinide (#)

Fr.: actinide   

Any member of the group of → chemical elements with → atomic numbers from 89 (→ actinium) to 103 (→ lawrencium), analogous to the → lanthanides.

From the chemical element → actinium.

actinium
  اکتینیوم   
aktiniom (#)

Fr.: actinium   

A silver-white radioactive → chemical element; symbol Ac. The first member of the → actinide series of the → periodic table. → Atomic number 89; → atomic weight 227.0278; → melting point about 1,050°C; → boiling point 3,200°C ± 300°C; → specific gravity 10.07; → valence +3. It is found with uranium minerals in pitchblende. Its longest lived → isotope is 227Ac with a → half-life of 21.77 years.

From actin-, variant of actino-, from Gk. aktinos "ray, beam" + → -ium. The discovery of actinium is shared between two chemists who independently found the element. The earlier discovery was made by the French chemist André Debierne (1874-1949) in 1899 in pitchblende residues left after Pierre and Marie Curie had extracted → radium. The element was rediscovered in 1902 by the German chemist Friedrich Otto Giesel (1852-1927), who called it emanium.

actinometer
  پرتوسنج   
partowsanj

Fr.: actinomètre   

Any instrument for measuring the intensity of radiation, especially that of the Sun, in its thermal, chemical, and luminous aspects.

Actinometer, from actino- combining form with the meaning "ray, beam," from Gk. aktis, aktin "ray," + → -meter.

Partow, → ray; + -sanj, → -meter.

action
  ژیرش، کنش   
žireš, koneš (#)

Fr.: action   

1) The process or state of acting or of being active.
2) According to → Newton's third law of motion, an external force that is applied to a body and that is counteracted by an equal force in the opposite direction ( → reaction).
3) A quantity whose → dimension (ML2T-1) coincides with that of → angular momentum, the → impulse of a force, or → energy x → time. The action plays an important part in → analytical mechanics, → quantum mechanics, and in a number of other fields of physics. Initially introduced in analytical mechanics, the concept of action has become a basic ingredient of modern physics, due to the role it has played in the generalization of → variational principle.
4) A scalar quantity computed as a function of the path followed by a system during its evolution between an initial instant ti and a final instant tf. It is defined by the → integral of the → Lagrangian between the two instants:
S = ∫L dt
In the framework of the → field theory, the action is expressed by the integral of the → Lagrangian density over the corresponding space-time volume:
S = ∫Ld d4x.
In classical physics, the path actually followed by the system is the one for which S is stationary (→ least action problem).
5) → quantum of action.
6) Math.: The action is a → functional, a mathematical relationship which takes an entire path and produces a single number.

Action, from O.Fr. action, from L. actionem, from agere "to do," → act.

Žireš, verbal noun from žir stem of žiridan "to act;" → act. Koneš, noun from kardan "to do, to make," Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

action at a distance
  ژیرش از دور   
žireš az dur

Fr.: action à distance   

The instantaneous action of a body on another body independently of the distance separating them. The description of → gravity by → Newton's law and → electrostatics by → Coulomb's law are examples of action at a distance. According to Newton, → gravitation acts directly and instantaneously between two objects. For example, if the Sun should suddenly break apart, the Earth's orbit would be affected instantaneously. However, action at a distance violates the → principle of relativistic causality. According to → general relativity, gravitational effects travel at the → speed of light. For modern physics there is no instantaneous action at a distance.

action; → distance.

action variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ ژیرش   
vartande-ye žireš

Fr.: variable d'action   

The time integral associated with the evolution of a physical system in the phase space.

action; → variable.

activate
  ژیراندن   
žirândan

Fr.: activer   

1) To induce activity in a system that is static, as in neutron activation of radioactivity.
2) To start the operation of an electrical device.

Activate, verb from → active.

Žirândan, transitive verb from žir, → act.

activation
  ژیرانش   
žirâneš

Fr.: activation   

1) The process of inducing or creating a state of → activity.
2) The process of producing a → radioactive isotope by bombarding a → stable → nuclide with → nuclear particles (such as → protons, → neutrons, → alpha particles, heavy ions, etc.).

Verbal noun of → activate; → -tion.

activation energy
  کاروژ ِ ژیرانش   
kâruž-e žirâneš

Fr.: énergie d'activation   

Chemistry: The minimum amount of energy that is required to activate → atoms or → molecules to a condition in which they can undergo a → chemical reaction. Most reactions involving neutral molecules cannot take place at all until they have acquired the energy needed to stretch, bend, or otherwise distort one or more → bonds. In most cases, the activation energy is supplied by → thermal energy.

activation; → energy.

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