An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 902

Fr.: actuel   

1) Existing in act or fact; real.
2) Philosophy: The character of what is realized in act (such as a statue), as opposed to what can potentially be realized (from a piece of rock).

M.E. actuel, from O.Fr. actuel "now existing, up to date," from L. actualis "active, pertaining to action," adj. form of actus, → act.

Žirvand, from žir, → act, + -vand a suffix forming adjectives denoting "possessed of, similarity, relation," variants -âvand, -van (e.g. xodâvand "possessor, master," pulâdvand "hard as steel, name of a hero," dowlatvand "rich," setarvan "mule-like, barren," polvan "bridge-like, a raised path"), from Mid.Pers. -âwand (hunarâwand "skilled," warzâwand "powerful"); Av. -vant (aurvant- "swift," surunvant- "audible"); cf. Skt. -vant (amavant- "having attacking power").


Fr.: actualité   

1) The quality or state of being actual or something that is actual; reality.
2) Philosophy: According to Aristotle, what has → form and can causally interact with other things, as opposed to → potentiality.

actual; → -ity.

  ژیروندش، ژیروند‌کرد   
živandeš, živandkard

Fr.: actualisation   

The act or process of actualizing.

Verbal noun of → actualize; → -tion.

  ژیروندیدن، ژیروند کردن   
živandidan, živand kardan

Fr.: actualiser   

To make actual or real; turn into action or fact.

actual; → -ize.


Fr.: actionner, déclencher   

1) To put into mechanical action or motion.
2) To incite or move to action; motivate.

From L. actuatus, p.p. of actuare, from actus, → act.

Baržiridan, from bar- "on, upon, up," → on-, + žiridan "to → act."


Fr.: actionnement, déclenchement   

The act or process of putting into action; activation.

Verbal noun of → actuate.


Fr.: actuateur   

A mechanism to activate process control equipment by use of pneumatic, hydraulic, or electronic signals.

actuate; → -or.

tiznâyi (#)

Fr.: acuité   

Sharpness; acuteness; keenness of perception.

M.E., from M.Fr. acuité, from M.L. acuitatem (nom. acuitas) "sharpness," from L. acus "needle," acuere "to sharpen," from PIE root *ak- "be sharp."

Tiznâ "sharpness," from tiz, "→ sharp," + -nâ, a suffix that transforms adjective into noun (compare with tangnâ, derâznâ, farâxnâ, etc.).

acuity of vision
  تیزنایی ِ دید   
tiznâ-ye did

Fr.: acuité visuelle   

The ability of the → eye to see separately two points close to each other. It is a measure of the → resolving power of the eye's → optical system and depends on the density of cells in the → retina. The maximum acuity of the normal human eye is around 0.5 minutes of arc.

acuity; → vision.

ad hoc
pad im

Fr.: ad hoc   

For the specific purpose at hand, as opposed to a general solution; also, by extension, improvised or impromptu.

From L. ad "to, with, in," cf. Skt. adhi "near," PIE *ad- "to, near, at."

Pad im, from Mid.Pers. pad "to, at, for, in" (Mod.Pers. "to, for, in, on, with, by"); O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti "to, toward, in, at;" cf. Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + Mid.Pers. im "this;" from Old.Pers./Av. ima "this;" Skt. imá; cf. Lori (Laki) im "this side." The Mid.Pers. im occurs in Mod.Pers. as em- in emruz "today," emšab "tonight," and emsâl "this year."

ad hoc hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ پدیم   
engâre-ye pad im

Fr.: hypothèse ad hoc   

Addition of adjustments to a theory to save it from being falsified by compensating for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. Theories that rely on continual, ad hoc adjustments are distrusted.

ad hoc; → hypothesis.


Fr.: ad-   

Prefix meaning "to, toward, addition to, near," from L. ad "to, toward." It is modified to ac- or af- or ag- or al- etc. according to the following consonant.

Cognate with E. at, from O.E. æt "near, by, at"; compare with O.N., Goth. at, O.Fris. et, O.H.G. az, Skt. adhi "near," PIE *ad- "to, near, at".


Fr.: adapter, s'adapter   

To make suitable to or fit for a specific use or situation.

From M.Fr. adapter, from L. adaptare "adjust," from ad- "to" + aptare "join," from aptus "fitted."

Niyâvidan from Mid. Pers. niyâw "apt, suitable, appropriate" + -idan verb making suffix.

  نیاویدنی، نیاوش‌پذیر   
niyâvidani, niyâveš-pazir

Fr.: adaptable   

Capable of adapting or of being adapted.

adapt + → -able.


Fr.: adaptation   

1) The act or process of adapting.
2) The state of being adapted.


adaptation of the eye
  نیاوش ِ چشم   
niyâveš-e cašm

Fr.: adaptation de l'oeil   

Physiological process whereby the eye adjusts its sensitivity for different levels of illumination.

adaptation, → eye.

  نیاوگر، نیاونده   
niyâvgar, niyâvandé

Fr.: adaptateur   

1) General: One that adapts.
An appliance for connecting objects of different sizes or designs in an apparatus.
2) Astro.: A device that allows an observing instrument (imaging camera, spectrograph) to be mounted on a focus (e.g. Cassegrain) of a telescope.

adapt + → -er.


Fr.: adaptation   

Same as → adaptation.



Fr.: adaptatif   

1) Relating to or exhibiting adaptation.
2) Capable of adapting or of being adapted. → adaptive optics; → adaptive optics system; → extreme adaptive optics.

adapt; → -ive.

adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)
  نازکش ِ نیاوشی ِ بانچه   
nâzokeš-e niyâveši-ye bâncé

Fr.: raffinement de maillage adaptatif   

A type of → algorithm that dynamically achieves high → resolution in localized regions of multidimensional → numerical simulations. AMR provides a higher → accuracy solution at lower costs, through an automatically → optimal distribution of → grid points for the computation region. It relies on locally refined mesh or mesh patches to increase the resolution of an underlying coarse mesh only where needed. It can alleviate some of the complexities of the generation of high quality grid and reduce the number of → iterations of "trial-and-error" between the grid generation and solution required for tailoring the grid to the specification of a problem. Thus, it can offer orders of magnitude saving in computational and storage costs over an equivalent uniformly refined mesh. AMR was originally developed for → inviscid, → compressible flow (Berger et al., 1984, Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations. J. Comp. Phy., 53, 484). It has been extended to solve → Navier-Stokes equations, time dependent problems and more. Several AMR techniques have been developed and applied to compressible flow fields to capture characteristics at the strong gradient or discontinuous regions requiring higher space resolution, such as regions involving → shock waves, vortices (→ vortex), and → wakes (see, e.g., Qingluan Xue, "Development of Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scheme and Conjugate Heat Transfer Model for Engine Simulations" (2009), Iowa State Univ., Graduate Theses and Dissertations, Paper 10678).
See also → Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics.

adaptive; → mesh; → refinement.

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