1) Existing in act or fact; real.
M.E. actuel, from O.Fr. actuel "now existing, up to date," from L. actualis "active, pertaining to action," adj. form of actus, → act.
Žirvand, from žir, → act, + -vand a suffix forming adjectives denoting "possessed of, similarity, relation," variants -âvand, -van (e.g. xodâvand "possessor, master," pulâdvand "hard as steel, name of a hero," dowlatvand "rich," setarvan "mule-like, barren," polvan "bridge-like, a raised path"), from Mid.Pers. -âwand (hunarâwand "skilled," warzâwand "powerful"); Av. -vant (aurvant- "swift," surunvant- "audible"); cf. Skt. -vant (amavant- "having attacking power").
1) The quality or state of being actual or something that is actual; reality.
The act or process of actualizing.
živandidan, živand kardan
To make actual or real; turn into action or fact.
Fr.: actionner, déclencher
1) To put into mechanical action or motion.
From L. actuatus, p.p. of actuare, from actus, → act.
Fr.: actionnement, déclenchement
The act or process of putting into action; activation.
Verbal noun of → actuate.
A mechanism to activate process control equipment by use of pneumatic, hydraulic, or electronic signals.
Sharpness; acuteness; keenness of perception.
M.E., from M.Fr. acuité, from M.L. acuitatem (nom. acuitas) "sharpness," from L. acus "needle," acuere "to sharpen," from PIE root *ak- "be sharp."
Tiznâ "sharpness," from tiz, "→ sharp," + -nâ, a suffix that transforms adjective into noun (compare with tangnâ, derâznâ, farâxnâ, etc.).
acuity of vision
Fr.: acuité visuelle
The ability of the → eye to see separately two points close to each other. It is a measure of the → resolving power of the eye's → optical system and depends on the density of cells in the → retina. The maximum acuity of the normal human eye is around 0.5 minutes of arc.
Fr.: ad hoc
For the specific purpose at hand, as opposed to a general solution; also, by extension, improvised or impromptu.
From L. ad "to, with, in," cf. Skt. adhi "near," PIE *ad- "to, near, at."
Pad im, from Mid.Pers. pad "to, at, for, in" (Mod.Pers. bé "to, for, in, on, with, by"); O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti "to, toward, in, at;" cf. Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + Mid.Pers. im "this;" from Old.Pers./Av. ima "this;" Skt. imá; cf. Lori (Laki) im "this side." The Mid.Pers. im occurs in Mod.Pers. as em- in emruz "today," emšab "tonight," and emsâl "this year."
ad hoc hypothesis
engâre-ye pad im
Fr.: hypothèse ad hoc
Addition of adjustments to a theory to save it from being falsified by compensating for anomalies not anticipated by the theory in its unmodified form. Theories that rely on continual, ad hoc adjustments are distrusted.
Prefix meaning "to, toward, addition to, near," from L. ad "to, toward." It is modified to ac- or af- or ag- or al- etc. according to the following consonant.
Cognate with E. at, from O.E. æt "near, by, at"; compare with O.N., Goth. at, O.Fris. et, O.H.G. az, Skt. adhi "near," PIE *ad- "to, near, at".
Fr.: adapter, s'adapter
To make suitable to or fit for a specific use or situation.
From M.Fr. adapter, from L. adaptare "adjust," from ad- "to" + aptare "join," from aptus "fitted."
Niyâvidan from Mid. Pers. niyâw "apt, suitable, appropriate" + -idan verb making suffix.
Capable of adapting or of being adapted.
1) The act or process of adapting.
adaptation of the eye
Fr.: adaptation de l'oeil
Physiological process whereby the eye adjusts its sensitivity for different levels of illumination.
1) General: One that adapts.
Same as → adaptation.
adaptive mesh refinement (AMR)
nâzokeš-e niyâveši-ye bâncé
Fr.: raffinement de maillage adaptatif
A type of → algorithm that dynamically achieves high
→ resolution in localized regions of multidimensional
→ numerical simulations.
AMR provides a higher → accuracy solution at
lower costs, through an automatically → optimal
distribution of → grid points for the
computation region. It relies on locally refined mesh or mesh
patches to increase the resolution of an underlying
coarse mesh only where needed.
It can alleviate some of the complexities of the generation of high
quality grid and reduce the number of → iterations of
"trial-and-error" between the grid generation and solution
required for tailoring the grid to the specification of a
problem. Thus, it can offer orders of magnitude saving in
computational and storage costs over an equivalent uniformly refined
mesh. AMR was originally developed for → inviscid,
→ compressible flow (Berger et al., 1984,
Adaptive Mesh Refinement for Hyperbolic Partial Differential
Equations. J. Comp. Phy., 53, 484). It
has been extended to solve → Navier-Stokes equations,
time dependent problems and more. Several
AMR techniques have been developed and applied to compressible flow fields to capture
characteristics at the strong gradient or discontinuous regions requiring higher space resolution,
such as regions involving → shock waves,
vortices (→ vortex), and
(see, e.g., Qingluan Xue, "Development of Adaptive Mesh Refinement Scheme and
Conjugate Heat Transfer Model for Engine Simulations" (2009), Iowa State Univ., Graduate
Theses and Dissertations, Paper 10678).