An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 474
backward
  پس-سو   
pas-su

Fr.: en arrière   

1) Toward the back or rear.
2) Directed toward the back or past.

back; → -ward.

backwarming effect
  ا ُسکر ِ فروگرمی   
oskar-e forugarmi

Fr.: effet de rétro-réchauffement   

A sort of → greenhouse effect in → stellar atmospheres where the deeper layers heat up due to overlying → opacity. The presence of numerous → bound-bound opacities of → metals amplifies the → scattering of → photons, in particular their → backscattering, forcing the → temperature to increase in order to conserve the radiation flux and the transport of energy from the interior to the outer parts of the atmosphere.

back; → warming; → effect.

bad column
  ستون ِ بد   
sotun-e bad

Fr.: mauvaise colonne   

Column of a → CCD detector that does not correctly read out charge.

Bad, from M.E. badde, but the origin of the word is not clear; → column.

Sotun, → column; bad, from Mid.Pers. wad, maybe from Old Iranian *vata- "small;" cf. Scythian bata- "small, bad," Sogdian wtγy "suffer, sorrow."

Baily's beads
  مهره‌های ِ بیلی   
mohrehâ-ye Beyli (#)

Fr.: perles de Baily   

A phenomenon that occurs during a total eclipse of the Sun. Just prior to and after totality, sunlight shines through the lunar valleys on the Moon's limb, causing the dark face of the Moon to appear to be surrounded by a shining "necklace of pearls".

Baily, from Francis Baily (1774-1844), English amateur astronomer, who discovered the phenomenon during the solar eclipse of 1836. Beads "a necklace of beads or pearls; a rosary," from bead "a small, often round piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing or threading," from M.E. bede "rosary bead," from O.E. bed, bedu, gebed "prayer;" PIE *gwhedh- "to ask, pray".

Mohrehâ "beads," from mohré "a kind of small shell resembling pearls; glass or coral beads," cf. Khotanese mrâhe, may be related to morvârid, → pearl, + -hâ suffix of plurals.

bait
  چشته   
cašté (#)

Fr.: appât   

Something edible placed on a hook or in a trap to attract fish or other animals as prey.

M.E., from O.Norse beita "food," O.E. bat "food," literally "to cause to bite."

Cašté "bait," related to câšni "taste," cašidan, caš- "to taste," câšt "breakfast;" Mid.Pers. câšt "meal," câšnig "taste;" cf. Skt. cas- "to eat;" Proto-Ir. caš- "to eat, to drink; to drip."

balance
  ۱) ترازو؛ ۲) تراز، ترازمندی   
1) tarâzu; 2) tarâz, tarâzmandi

Fr.: balance   

1a) A weighing device.
1b) The constellation → Libra.
2) A state of equilibrium.

M.E balaunce, from O.Fr. balance "balance, scales for weighing," from M.L. bilancia, from L.L. bilanx, from L. (libra) bilanx "(scale) having two pans," possibly from L. bis "twice" + lanx "dish, plate, scale of a balance."

Tarâzu, → Libra.

bald
  کل، گر، کچل، تاس   
kal, gar, kacal, tâs

Fr.: chauve   

Having little or no hair on the scalp. → bald patch.

Bald from M.E. ball(e)d; Celtic bal "white patch, blaze;" Gk. phalios "having a white spot;" L. fulica "coot;" → patch.

Kal "bald," Mid.Pers. gar "bald;" Av. kaurva- "bald;" cf. Skt. kulva- "bald, thin-haired;" L. calvus "naked, bald."
Kacal may be related to kal.
Tâs, variant taz "bald;" Tabari tisâ, Saraxsi, Lâsgardi, Sangesari tusâ "empty;" related to tohi "empty;" Mid.Pers. tuhig; Av. taoš- "to become empty," pres. tusa-, caus. taošaya-, tusən "they lose their posture;" cf. Skt. tuccha-, tucchya- "empty;" L. tesqua, tesca "deserted place;" Russ. tošcij "hollow;" PIE base *teus- "to empty."

bald patch
  تکه‌ی ِ تاس   
teke-ye tâs

Fr.: zone chauve   

The location on the surface of the Sun where coronal magnetic field lines become tangent to the → photosphere. Bald patches play an important role in solar magnetohydrodynamics.

Such called because of visual reference to a haircut (Titov et al. 1993, A&A 276, 564); → patch.

Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram
  نمودار ِ بالدوین-فیلیپس-ترلویچ   
nemudâr-e Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich

Fr.: diagram de Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich   

A set of nebular → emission line diagrams used to distinguish the ionization mechanism of → nebular gas. The most famous version consists of [N II]λ6584/Hα versus [OIII] λ5007/Hβ. The next two more commonly used BPT diagnostics are [S II] λλ6717,6731/Hα versus [O III] λ5007/Hβ and [O I] λ6300/Hα versus [O III]λ5007/Hβ. These diagrams use strong, optical lines of close proximity in the ratios to limit → reddening and → spectrophotometric effects. They are able to clearly distinguish different classes of → ionization, for example → LINERs from normal → H II regions and → active galactic nuclei.

Baldwin, J. A., Phillips, M. M., Terlevich, R., 1981 PASP 93, 5; → diagram.

ball
  توپ، گوی   
tup (#), guy (#)

Fr.: boule, balle, ballon   

A spherical or approximately spherical body, either solid or hollow.

From M.E. bal, balle, from O.Fr.; cf. O.H.G. ballo, Ger. Ball; PIE root *bhel- "to blow, swell."

Tup "ball," initially "clmup, aggregation, parcel, group" (tup tup "many"); Tabari tupa "compressed, assembled," tuppi "round;" Kurd. top "ball," topâl "round;" guy, → globe.

ball lightning
  گوی ِ آذرخش   
gu-ye âzaraxš (#)

Fr.: foudre en bulle   

A rare form of lightning occurring as a bright red globe observed floating or moving through the atmosphere close to the ground. It usually is seen shortly before or after, or during, a → thunderstorm. Its duration varies from a few seconds to a few minutes. See also → Saint Elmo's fire.

ball; → lightning.

ballistic
  پرتابیک   
partâbik (#)

Fr.: balistique   

Of or relating to → ballistics.

ballistic missile
  موشک ِ پرتابیک   
mušak-e partâbik (#)

Fr.: missile balistique   

A missile that after being launched and guided in the early part of its flight, travels unpowered in a ballistic trajectory.

ballistic; → missile.

ballistic panspermia
  پان‌دانه‌وری ِ پرتابیک   
pân-dâne-vari-ye partâbik

Fr.: panspermie balistique   

Transfer of microbes and biochemical compounds from a planet to another due to meteoric impacts. Debris being knocked off a planet like Mars can reach escape velocity and enter the atmosphere of another planet with passenger micro-organisms intact.

ballistic; → panspermia.

ballistic trajectory
  ترایش ِ پرتابیک   
tarâyeš-e partâbik

Fr.: trajectoire balistique   

A curved path followed by an unpowered object that is being acted upon only by gravitational forces and the friction of the medium through which it moves.

ballistic; → trajectory.

ballistic wave
  موج ِ پرتابیک   
mowj-e partâbik

Fr.: onde balistique   

Audible disturbance or wave caused by the compression of air ahead of a projectile in flight.

ballistic; → wave.

ballistics
  پرتابیک، پرتابشناسی   
partâbik (#), partâbšenâsi (#)

Fr.: balistique   

The science of the motion and behavior of → projectiles. The study of the functioning of firearms.

From L. ballista "ancient military machine for hurling stones," from Gk. ballistes, from ballein "to throw," from PIE *gwele- "to throw".

Partâbik, from partâb "a throw, an arrow that flies far," partâbidan "to throw," + -ik, → -ics; partâbšenâsi, from partâb + -šenâsi, → -logy.

balloon astronomy
  اخترشناسی با بالون، بالون-اخترشناسی   
axtaršenâsi bâ bâlon, bâlon-axtaršenâsi

Fr.: astronomie en ballon   

A branch of modern astronomy in which balloons are used to carry telescopes and instruments to high altitudes (up to 50 km) for observation.

Balloon, from Fr. ballon, from It. dialectal ballone, augmentative of balla, ball, from P.Gmc. *ball-, from PIE *bhel- "to blow, swell". → astronomy.

Axtaršenâsi, → astronomy; bâlon, from Fr. ballon.

balloon-borne telescope
  دوربین ِ بالون-برد، تلسکوپ ~   
durbin-e bâlon-bord, teleskop-e ~

Fr.: télescope porté par ballon   

A remotely guided or automatic telescope carried to high altitudes by a balloon.

balloon astronomy; borne "a past participle of bear," from O.E. beran "bear, bring, wear," from P.Gmc. *beranan (O.H.G. beran, Goth. bairan "to carry"), from PIE root *bher-; "to carry;" compare with Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother," Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry," Skt. bharati "he carries," Gk. pherein, L. fero "to carry." → telescope.

balloon astronomy. Bord in bâlon-bord "borne, carried," from Mod.Pers. bordan "to bear, carry," as explained above. Durbin, → telescope.

Balmer
  بالمر   
Bâlmer

Fr.: Balmer   

From Johann Jakob Balmer (1825-1898), Swiss mathematician and physicist, who explained the visible spectral lines of the hydrogen spectrum in 1885.

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