An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 482
blue wing
  بال ِ آبی   
bâl-e âbi

Fr.: aile bleue   

The → line wing with wavelengths shorter than that of the emission or absorption peak.

blue; → wing.

blueshift
  آبی-کیب   
âbikib

Fr.: décalage vers le bleu   

The apparent shift of the wavelength towards the shorter wavelength region of the radiation spectrum of an approaching object due to the Doppler effect.

blue; → shift.

blueshifted component
  همنه‌ی ِ آبی-کیب   
hamneye âbikib

Fr.: composante décalée vers le bleu   

A constituent of a composite astronomical object which has a motion directed towards the observer, as revealed by its spectrum.

blueshift; → component.

blur
  ۱) تار کردن، ۲) تار شدن   

Fr.: estomper   

1) (v.tr.) To make indistinct and hazy in outline or appearance.
2) (v.intr.) To become indistinct.

Probably akin to M.E. bleren "to blear."

Târ "dark, obscure, cloudy" Mid.Pers. târ, from Mid./Mod.Pers. târ "dark, obscure, cloudy."

blurred image
  تصویر ِ تار، ~ ِ ناتیگ   
tasvir-e târ, ~ nâtig

Fr.: image estompée, ~ floue   

An image which is dim, indistinct, or vague in appearance, for instance when the optics is not well-focused or when the seeing is poor. The same as → unsharp image, contrary to → sharp image.

Blurred, p.p. of → blur; → image.

blurring
  تارشد   
târšod

Fr.: estompage   

In → galactic dynamics models, the → scattering of stars at radii substantially away from → corotation resonance, especially at the → Lindblad resonances, leading to a higher → eccentricity. The → spiral wave response of a → galactic disk to a co-orbiting mass → clump blurs the distinction between scattering by → spiral arms and by mass clumps. See also → churning (J. A. Sellwood & J. J. Binney, 2002, astro-ph/0203510 and references therein).

Verbal noun of → blur.

Boötes
  گاوران، گایار   
Gâvrân, Gâyâr

Fr.: Bouvier   

The Herdsman, the Ox Driver. A constellation in the northern hemisphere, at right ascension about 14h 30m, north declination about 30°. Its brightest star is → Arcturus. Abbreviation: Boo; genitive form: Boötis.

L. Boötes, from Gk. bootes "plowman," literally "ox-driver," from bootein "to plow," from bous "ox," from PIE *gwou- "ox, bull, cow;" compare with Av. gao-, gâuš "bull, cow, ox," Mod.Pers. gâv, Skt. gaus, Armenian kov, O.E. cu.

Gâvrân "ox-driver," from gâv "ox, cow" + rân "driver," from rândan "to drive."
Gâyâr, from Lori "bull driver, plower, plow man" (Tabari goyâr), from "bull, cow," variant of gâv, explained above, + -âr, either "driver", Av. ar- "to set in motion" (Skt. ir-, IER *er-), or IER *are- "to plow" (L. arare, Gk. aroun, O.C.S. orja, Lith. ariu, Goth. arjan, O.E. erian, Tokharian AB âre). Compare also with Gilaki urân " to plow," Qâeni ordu "plow".

Bode's law
  قانون ِ بوده   
qânun-e Bode

Fr.: loi de Bode   

Titius-Bode law.

body
  جسم   
jesm (#)

Fr.: corps   

Any material object characterized by its physical properties.

Body, from O.E. bodig "trunk, chest," related to O.H.G. botah, of unknown origin.

Jesm, from Ar. jism "body, corps."

Boeshaar-Keenan classification
  رده‌بندی ِ بوسهار-کینان   
radebandi-ye Boeshaar-Keenan

Fr.: classification de Boeshaar-Keenan   

A system for the classification of → S-type stars. The system involves the designations of a C/O index and a temperature type. Moreover, when possible, it uses intensity estimates for → ZrO bands, the → TiO bands, the → Na I D-lines, the YO bands, and the Li I 6708 line.

Philip C. Keenan & Patricia C. Boeshaar, 1980, ApJS, 43, 379; → classification.

Bohr
  بؤر   
Bohr

Fr.: Bohr   

Niels Bohr (1885-1962), Danish physicist who made several important contributions to modern physics. He won the 1922 Nobel prize for physics in recognition of his work on the structure of atoms.

Bohr atom
  اتم ِ بؤر   
atom-e Bohr

Fr.: atome de Bohr   

The simplest model of an atom according to which electrons move around the central nucleus in circular, but well-defined, orbits. For more details see → Bohr model.

Bohr; → atom.

Bohr magneton
  مگنتون ِ بؤر   
magneton-e Bohr (#)

Fr.: magnéton de Bohr   

A fundamental constant, first calculated by Bohr, for the intrinsic → spin magnetic moment of the electron. It is given by: μB = eħ/2me = 9.27 x 10-24 joule/tesla = 5.79 x 10-5 eV/tesla, representing the minimum amount of magnetism which can be caused by the revolution of an electron around an atomic nucleus. It serves as a unit for measuring the magnetic moments of atomic particles.

Bohr; magneton, from → magnet + → -on.

Bohr model
  مدل ِ بؤر   
model-e Bohr

Fr.: modèle de Bohr   

A model suggested in 1913 to explain the stability of atoms which classical electrodynamics was unable to account for. According to the classical view of the atom, the energy of an electron moving around a nucleus must continually diminish until the electron falls onto the nucleus. The Bohr model solves this paradox with the aid of three postulates (→ Bohr's first postulate, → Bohr's second postulate, → Bohr's third postulate). On the whole, an atom has stable orbits such that an electron moving in them does not radiate electromagnetic waves. An electron radiates only when making a transition from an orbit of higher energy to one with lower energy. The frequency of this radiation is related to the difference between the energies of the electron in these two orbits, as expressed by the equation hν = ε1 - ε2, where h is → Planck's constant and ν the radiation frequency. The electron needs to gain energy to jump to a higher orbit. It gets that extra energy by absorbing a quantum of light (→ photon), which excites the jump. The electron does not remain on the higher orbit and returns to its lower energy orbit releasing the extra energy as radiation. Bohr's model answered many scientific questions in its time though the model itself is oversimplified and, in the strictest sense, incorrect. Electrons do not orbit the nucleus like a planet orbiting the Sun; rather, they behave as → standing waves. Same as → Bohr atom.

Bohr; → model.

Bohr radius
  شعاع ِ بؤر   
šo'â'-e Bohr

Fr.: rayon de Bohr   

The radius of the orbit of the hydrogen electron in its ground state (0.529 Å).

Bohr; → radius.

Bohr's first postulate
  فراوس ِ نخست ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e naxost-e Bohr

Fr.: premier postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby there are certain steady states of the atom in which electrons can only travel in stable orbits. In spite of their acceleration, the electrons do not radiate electromagnetic waves when they move along stationary orbits.

Bohr; → first; → postulate.

Bohr's postulate
  فراوس ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e Bohr

Fr.: postulat de Bohr   

One of the three postulates advanced in the → Bohr model which led to the correct prediction of the observed line spectrum of hydrogen atom. See also → Bohr's first postulate, → Bohr's second postulate, → Bohr's third postulate,

Bohr; → postulate.

Bohr's second postulate
  فراوس ِ دوم ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e dovom-e Bohr

Fr.: deuxième postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby when an atom is in the steady state an electron travelling in a circular orbit should have → quantized values of the → angular momentum which comply with the condition p = n(h/2π), where p is the angular momentum of the electron, h is → Planck's constant, and n is a positive integer called → quantum number.

Bohr; → second; → postulate.

Bohr's third postulate
  فراوس ِ سوم ِ بؤر   
farâvas-e sevom-e Bohr

Fr.: troisième postulat de Bohr   

One of the postulates used in the → Bohr model, whereby the atom emits (absorbs) a quantum of electromagnetic energy (→ photon) when the electron passes from an orbit with a greater (lesser) n value to one with a lesser (greater) value. The energy of the quantum is equal to the difference between the energies of the electron on its orbits before and after the transition or "jump": hν = ε1 - ε2, where h is the → Planck's constant and ν the frequency of the transition.

Bohr; → third; → postulate.

boiling point
  نقطه‌ی ِ جوش   
noqte-ye juš (#)

Fr.: point d'ébullition   

The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas (vapor) at normal atmospheric pressure. In other words, the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure.

M.E. boillen; O.Fr. boillir, from L. bullire "to bubble, seethe," from bulla "a bubble, knob;" → point.

Noqté, → point; juš "boiling," present stem of jušidan "to boil;" Khotanese jis- "to boil;" Av. yaēšiiant- "boiling;" cf. Skt. yas- "to boil, become hot," yasyati "boils, seethes;" Gk. zein "to bubble, boil, cook;" O.H.G. jesan "to ferment, foam;" Ger. Gischt "foam, froth," gären "to ferment;" O.E. gist; E. yeast.

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