An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 486
bow shock
  فرال-تش، فرال-شوک   
farâl-toš farâl-šok

Fr.: choc de proue   

A → shock wave created in front of an object moving through a medium with a velocity higher than that of the → sound waves in that medium. See, for example, → magnetosphere.

bow; → shock.

bow wave
  فرال-موج، موج ِ فرال   
farâl-mowj, mowj-e farâl

Fr.: onde de proue   

The wave which appears in front of a speeding boat and goes out behind it in a distinctive "V". It is due to the fact that waves pile up on each other before they can move away.

bow; → wave.

Bowen fluorescence mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ فلوءورستی ِ باؤن   
sâzokâr-e fluoresti-ye Bowen

Fr.: mécanisme de fluorescence de Bowen   

A mechanism, made possible by certain chance coincidences between → spectral lines of He II, O III and N III in some → planetary nebulae , that explains the presence with a high intensity of a selected group of O III and N III lines while all other lines of these elements are missing.

After I. S. Bowen who first discovered this mechanism in 1935; → fluorescence; → mechanism.

box
  جعبه، قوتی   
ja'bé (#), quti (#)

Fr.: boîte   

A container, case, or receptacle, usually rectangular, of wood, metal, cardboard, etc. (Dictionary.com).
box-peanut bulge.

M.E., O.E., probably from L.L. buxis, from L. buxis, from Gk. pyxis "boxwood box," from pyxos "box tree," of uncertain origin.

Ja'bé, from Ar. ja'bah; quti, from Turk.

box-peanut bulge
  کوژ ِ قوتی-بادام‌زمینی   
kuž-e quti/bâdâm-zamini

Fr.: bulbe box/peanut   

A → galaxy bulge that shows a boxy or peanut-like morphology. These bulges are usually featureless and show no signs of → dust obscuration, young → stellar populations, or → star-forming regions. They are also kinematically cold and usually referred to as → pseudo-bulges. A number of studies have shown that these structures are just the inner parts of → bars that grow vertically thick due to vertical → resonances. They have basically the same dynamics and stellar content as bars, just their geometry is somewhat different. Box/peanut bulges are not seen if the galaxy is not inclined enough. In a → face-on galaxy, if it has a box/peanut, it will be seen as part of the bar. The → Milky Way shows a box/peanut bulge. Another remarkable case is that of → M31, known to have a bar, with its box/peanut inner part (Combes & Sanders 1981, A&A 96, 164; Combes et al. 1990, A&A 233, 82; Kormendy & Kennicutt, 2004, ARA&A 42, 603).

box; → peanut; → bulge.

Boyle-Mariotte law
  قانون ِ بویل-ماریوت   
qânun-e Boyle-Mariotte (#)

Fr.: loi de Boyle-Mariotte   

In a → perfect gas where mass and temperature are kept constant, the volume of the gas will vary inversely with the absolute pressure. The law can be expressed as PV = constant, where P = absolute pressure and V = volume.

After Robert Boyle (1627-1691), an Irish philosopher, chemist, and physicist, and Edme Mariotte (1620-1684), a French physicist and pioneer of neurophysiology, who discovered the law independently, the first one in 1662 and the second one in 1676; → law.

Bq star
  ستاره‌ی Bq   
setâre-ye Bq

Fr.: étoile Bq   

An obsolete designation used in early objective-prism studies to denote → B-type stars with "abnormal spectra" characterized by → forbidden emission lines. → B[e] star.

star.

bra
  برا   
brâ

Fr.: bra   

In Dirac's notation for describing a quantum state, a vector which together with → ket constitutes the dual vector → bracket. A bra is shown by <|, the mirror image of the symbol for a ket vector. The scalar product of a bra vector < B| and a ket vector |A> is written < B|A >, i.e. as a juxtaposition of the symbols for the bra and the ket vectors, that for the bra vector being on the left, and the two vertical lines being contracted to one for brevity.

From bra- the first syllable in → bracket.

bracket
  براکت   
brâket

Fr.: bracket   

In Dirac's notation, an expression which is a → scalar product of the dual vectors → bra and → ket which describe a quantum state. The bra vector appears on the left of the ket vector.

From M.Fr. braguette "codpiece armor."

Brackett series
  سری ِ براکت   
seri-ye Brackett

Fr.: série de Brackette   

A series of lines in the infrared spectrum of atomic hydrogen due to electron jumps between the fourth and higher energy levels (Br α has wavelength 4.052 μm, Br γ 2.166 μm).

Named after the American physicist Frederick Brackett (1896-1980); → series.

Bragg angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ براگ   
zâviye-ye Bragg

Fr.: angle de Bragg   

The grazing angle between an incident beam of X-rays and a given set of crystal planes for which the secondary X-rays from the planes combine to give a single beam.

Bragg's law; → angle.

Bragg's law
  قانون ِ براگ   
qânun-e Bragg

Fr.: loi de Bragg   

A parallel beam of monochromatic X-rays of wavelength λ, incident on a given set of parallel crystal planes at a grazing angle θ will give rise to a reflected beam whenever: n λ = 2d . sinθ, where n is an integer representing the difference in path length, and d is the perpendicular distance between a pair of adjacent planes.

Named after William Lawrence Bragg (1890-1971), British physicist, who, in collaboration with his father, William Henry Bragg (1862-1942), joint Nobel Prize in Physics 1915, pioneered X-ray analysis and spectrometry; → law.

brake
  ۱) لگام، ترمز؛ ۲) لگامیدن، ترمز کردن   
1) legâm, tormoz 2) legâmidan, tormoz kardan

Fr.: 1) frein; 2) freiner   

1) A device for slowing or stopping a vehicle or other moving mechanism by the absorption or transfer of the energy of momentum, usually by means of friction.
2) To slow or stop by means of or as if by means of a brake (Dictionary.com).

From O.Du. braeke "flax brake," from breken "to break."

Legâm originally "a horse bit," on the model of Fr. frein "horse bit; motor brake;" and Ger. Bremse "horse bit; brake;" tormoz, loan from Russ. тормоз.

braking
  لگامش   
legâmeš

Fr.: freinage   

The act or fact of stopping by means of or as if by means of a brake. See: → magnetic braking; → radiative braking; → tidal braking; → braking index.

Verbal noun of → brake.

braking index
  دیشن ِ لگامش   
dišan-e legâmeš

Fr.: indice de freinage   

A parameter indicating the rate at which a → pulsar slows down. Neutron stars are powered by → rotational energy and lose energy by accelerating particle → winds and by emitting → electromagnetic radiation. The → rotation frequency, Ω, thus decreases with time and this slowdown is usually described by the relation Ω. = - kΩn, where k is a positive constant which depends on the → moment of inertia and the → magnetic dipole moment of the → neutron star and n is the braking index. Conventionally, the braking index is derived by differentiation of the above equation, yielding n = ΩΩ.. / Ω.2. In a highly simplified model in which the spin-down torque arises from dipole radiation at the rotation frequency, one expects n = 3 (Johnston, S., Galloway, D., 1999, arXiv:astro-ph/9905058).

braking; → index.

branch
  ۱) شاخه؛ ۲) شاخه زدن   
1) šâxé (#); 2) šâxé zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) branche; 2) se ramifier   

1a) General: A shoot or arm-like limb of a tree; anything like a limb of a tree; any offshoot from a main trunk.
1b) Astro.:asymptotic giant branch; → blue horizontal-branch stars; → red giant branch; → branching; → branching ratio.
1c) Math.: Any of the two halves of a → hyperbola.
1d) Math.: A section of a curve separated by → discontinuity from the rest of the curve.
2a) To put forth branches.
2b) To spread in branches.

M.E., from O.Fr. branche, from L.L. branca "a claw, paw."

1) Šâxé "branch," from Mid.Pers šâk, cf. Mod.Pers. šâx, šax "branch; horn," Skt. sakha- "a branch, a limb," Arm. cax, Lit. šaka, O.S. soxa, PIE *kakhâ "branch."
2) Šâxé zadan with verb zadan "to strike, beat," → outcrop.

branching
  شاخه‌زد   
šâxé-zad

Fr.: branchement   

The act of dividing into branches. → branching ratio.

branch; → -ing.

branching ratio
  وابر ِ شاخه‌زد   
vâbar-e šâxé-zad

Fr.: rapport de branchement   

A quantity used to describe a → radionuclide that has more than one → decay mode. For a particular decay mode, the ratio of the number of atoms decaying by that decay mode to the number decaying in total: BRi = ki/(k1 + k2 + ...) = ki/k, where k is → decay constant.

branching; → ratio.

brane
  برین   
breyn (#)

Fr.: brane   

In theoretical physics, an entity which can have any number of allowed spatial dimensions. It is usually accompanied by a prefix, i.e. p-brane, indicating the number of dimensions. For example, a 0-brane is a zero-dimensional point-like particle, a 1-brane is a → string, a 2-brane is a "membrane," and so forth. Our Universe is a 3-brane.

Brane, short for membrane, from L. membrana "parchment," from membrum "limb, member of the body," → member.

Breyn, loanword from E., as above.

break
  ۱) شکستن؛ بریدن؛ گسستن؛ ۲) شکست؛ برش؛ بره؛ گسست   
1) šekastan; boridan; gosastan; 2) šekast; boreš, boré; gosast

Fr.: 1) couper, rompre; 2) brisure, coupure   

1) To separate into parts or fragments violently; to become broken.
2) The act or instance of breaking; fracture, rupture; a sudden decline in a continuity.

From break, from M.E. breken, O.E. brecan, from P.Gmc. *brekan (cf. Du. breken, O.H.G. brehhan, Ger. brechen), from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (see also → fraction).

1) Šekastan, škan- "to break, split;" Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand "to break, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;" PIE sken- "to cut off."
Boridan "to cut off," → cut.
Gosastan "to tear, cut, break," from Mid.Pers. wisistan "to break, split;" Av. saed-, sid- "to split, break," asista- "unsplit, unharmed;" cf. Skt. chid- "to split, break, cut off;" Gk. skhizein "to split;" L. scindere "to split;" Goth. skaidan; O.E. sceadan "to divide, separate;" PIE base *skei- "to cut, split."
2) Šekast; boreš boré; gosast, respective nouns from the verbs.

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