An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 493
buoyancy frequency
  بسامد ِ بالارانی   
basâmad-e bâlârâni

Fr.: fréquence de flottabilité   

Same as the → Brunt-Vaisala frequency.

buoyancy; → frequency.

buoyant force
  نیروی ِ بالاران   
niru-ye bâlârân

Fr.: poussée d'Archimède   

The force that causes immersed bodies to float or rise to the surface of a liquid or upward in a gas. Buoyant force is produced by → gravity and density differences. Same as → buoyancy.

From buoy (current meaning) "a float moored in water to mark a location," from M.E. boye, from O.Fr. buie or M.Du. boeye, from L. boia "fetter, chain" + suffix -ant; → force.

burn
  ۱) سوختن؛ ۲) سوزاندن   
1) suxtan; 2) suzândan

Fr.: brûler   

1) (v.intr.) To undergo combustion (fast or slow).
To undergo fusion or fission.
2) (v.tr.) To cause to undergo combustion.
To use as fuel or as a source of heat.

Burn, from M.E. bernen, brennen, combination of O.E. beornan (intr.) and bærnan (tr.), both from P.Gmc. *brenwanan; cf. Goth. brannjan, O.H.G. brennen.

Suxtan, suzândan, from Mid.Pers. sôxtan, sôzidan "to burn;" Av. base saoc- "to burn, inflame" sūcā "brilliance," upa.suxta- "inflamed;" cf. Skt. śoc- "to light, glow, burn," śocati "burns," (caus.) socayati, śuc- "flame, glow," śoka- "light, flame;" PIE base *(s)keuk- "to shine."

burning
  سوزش   
suzeš (#)

Fr.: combustion   

The state, process, or effect of being on fire, burned, or subjected to intense heat. → helium burning; → neon burning; → oxygen burning; → shell burning.

Verbal noun of → burn.

burning sphere
  گوی ِ سوزان   
guy-e suzân

Fr.: sphère ardente   

A piece of glass of roundish shape, possibly made of rock crystals or a globular container filled with water, whose use is attested in ancient civilizations. In his comedy The Clouds, the Greek playwright Aristophanes (448-380 BC) mentions globules of glass that were known as burning spheres. Several Roman writers (Pliny, Seneca, Plutarch) speak of burning glasses. In particular, Seneca specifies that small and indistinct written characters appear larger and clearer when viewed through a globular glass filled with water. See also → magnifying glass.

burning; → sphere.

Guy, → globe; suzân "burning," → burning.

burst
  ۱) بلک؛ ۲) بلکیدن   
1) belk; 2) belkidan

Fr.: 1) sursaut, flambée, impulsion; 2) éclater   

1a) General: An abrupt, intense increase. A period of intense activity. A sudden outbreak or outburst. An explosion.
1b) Astro.: A period of abrupt increase in the intensity of a phenomenon, for example → star formation rate or emission of radiation such as → X-ray burst, → gamma-ray burst, or → cosmic-ray burst. See also → burst of star formation, → starburst galaxy.
2) To come open or fly apart suddenly or violently, especially from internal pressure.

M.E. bersten, from O.E. berstan, akin to O.H.G. berstan "to burst;" from PIE *bhres- "to burst, break, crack."

1) Belk, Mod.Pers. "a blaze, a flame." The term has several variants, including in dialects: balk [Mo'in], pâlk (Tokharian AB), bal (Gilaki, Semnâni, Sorxeyi, Sangesari, Lahijâni), val (Gilaki), bilese (Kordi), beleyz (Lori), warq, barx [Mo'in], and the Pers. widespread term gorr "burst of fire." Belk derives probably from Mid.Pers. brâh, Av. braz- "to shine, gleam, flash, radiate," cf. Skt. bhâ- "to shine," bhrajate "shines, glitters," O.H.G. beraht "bright," O.E. beorht "bright;" PIE *bhereg- "to shine." The Mod.Pers. barq "glitter; → electricity" probably belongs to this family. Therefore, the Hebrew barak and Ar. barq may be loanwords from Old or Mid.Pers.
2) Belkidan, from belk + infinitive suffix -idan.

burst of star formation
     
belk-e diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: flambée de formation d'étoiles   

An intense → star formation activity in a region of → interstellar medium or, more globally, in a → galaxy. It is characterized by a → star formation rate which is much higher than the corresponding average. Same as → starburst.

burst; → star; → formation.

burster
  بلکور   
belkvar

Fr.: source à sursaut   

A → source that shows sudden intense → emission of → X-rays or → gamma rays with a rapid rise and decay. Often it cannot be identified with any → optical counterpart.

From → burst + -er a noun-forming suffix.

Belkvar, from belk, → burst, + agent noun suffix -var.

butterfly diagram
  نمودار ِ پروانه‌وار   
nemudâr-e parvânevâr

Fr.: diagramme en papillon   

A graph on which the latitudes of → sunspots are plotted against time. It shows how sunspots migrate from high latitudes (30°- 40° north or south) to the solar equator (latitude of about 5°) during each → solar cycle, according to → Sporer's law. The shape of these distributions, when represented for both hemispheres, resembles the wings of a butterfly. The diagram was first created by Edward W. Maunder in 1904 to illustrate the solar cycle (M.S.: SDE).

Butterfly, from M.E. butterflye, from O.E. butorfleoge, from butor, butere "butter" floge "fly," but the etymology is not clear; → diagram.

Nemudâr, → diagram; parvânevâr "resembling a butterfly," from parvâné "butterfly" + -vâr similarity suffix.

buttock
  سرین   
sorin (#)

Fr.: fesse   

1) Either of the two large fleshy masses of thick muscular tissue that form the human rump.
2) In animals, the → rump (Dictionary.com).

M.E. buttok, maybe from O.E. buttuc "end; end piece; short piece of land."

Sorin, variant sarun; Mid.Pers. sarinak, srinak (Sogdian šun / šôn "hip, haunch"); Av. sraoni- "buttok, hip;" Skt. śroni- "the hip and loins," Pali soni- "the buttock."

by
  پت   
pat

Fr.: par   

A preposition used to indicate the agent after a passive verb. By means of.

M.E., O.E. bi "near, in, by, during, about;" cf. O.S. and O.Fr. bi, M.Du., Du. bij, Ger. bei;cf. Skt. abhi "toward, to," Gk. amphi- "around, about;" Av. aibi, aiwi, O.Pers. aiby, Pers. af-.

Pat, from Mid.Pers. pat, pad "to, at, in, on" (Mod.Pers. ); O.Pers. patiy, Av. paiti "to, at, for, with, by mean of," cf. Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti.

by default
  پت نابون   
pat nâbun

Fr.: par défaut   

Because of a lack of opposition or alternative.

by; → default.

B[e] star
  ستاره‌یِ B[e]   
setâre-ye B[e]

Fr.: étoile B[e]   

A → Be star with → forbidden lines in emission in its spectrum. B[e] stars show large → infrared excess due to → circumstellar dust emission. See also → supergiant B[e] star, → pre-main sequence B[e] star, → compact planetary nebula B[e] star, → symbiotic B[e] star, and → unclassified B[e] star.

B, referring to the spectral type; e for emission lines, brackets for distinction from Be; → star.

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