An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 699
deuterated species
  آرز ِ دوتریده   
âraz-e doteridé

Fr.: espèce deutérée   

A chemical species in which the → deuterium abundance is → enriched with respect to a mean standard value.

deuterated; → species.

deuteration
  دوترش   
dotereš

Fr.: deutération   

The process of introducing → deuterium into a → chemical compound.

Verbal noun of → deuterate.

deuterium
  دوتریوم   
doteriom (#)

Fr.: deutérium   

The first heavy → isotope of → hydrogen (2H), the → nucleus of which consists of one → proton and one → neutron. Like hydrogen, the deuterium atom has one electron, and therefore has similar chemical properties to hydrogen, forming, e.g., → heavy water (HDO). Deuterium is generated only during → Big Bang nucleosynthesis. It is destroyed in stars through the reaction D + p → 3He + γ (→ deuterium burning). As there is no net source of deuterium in stars, its abundance has decreased steadily since the → Big Bang, and any value measured today must be a lower limit on the primordial value. However, → fractionation processes lead to local → deuterium enhancements; see → deuterium abundance for more details. Theoretical models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis predict D/H to be (2.61 ± 0.15) x 10-5 (Steigman et al. 2007, MNRAS 378, 576) and this is closely matched by measurements from intergalactic Dα line absorption observations toward high-redshift quasars that give 2.53±0.04 x 10-5 (Cooke et al. 2014, ApJ 781, 31).
See also: → deuterated, → deuterated species, → deuterium enrichment, → deuterium enrichment factor, → deuterium fractionation, → deuteron.

From Gk. deutero-, combining form of deuterios "second" + -ium suffix occurring in scientific coinages on a Latin model. Coined in 1933 by U.S. chemist Harold C. Urey (1893-1981).

deuterium abundance
  فراوانی ِ دوتریوم   
farâvâni-ye doteriom

Fr.: abondance de deutérium   

The number of → deuterium (D) atoms with respect to → hydrogen (H) in an astrophysical object. Deuterium is a primordial product of → Big Bang nucleosynthesis. According to theoretical models, the primordial D/H ratio is estimated to be (2.61 ± 0.15) x 10-5 (Steigman et al. 2007, MNRAS 378, 576). Nuclear reactions in stars convert D into He tending to a lower D/H ratio in the → interstellar medium over time (→ deuterium burning). However, chemical and physical → fractionation processes can produce local → enhancements in the D/H ratio. For example, low-temperature ion-molecule reactions in → molecular cloud cores can enhance the D/H ratio in icy grains by as much as two orders of magnitude above that observed in the interstellar medium.
The D/H ratio in the → solar nebula, estimated from observations of CH4 in → Jupiter and → Saturn, is 2.1 ± 0.4 x 10-5, assuming that these gaseous planets obtained most of their hydrogen directly from solar nebula gas. This estimate is consistent with → protosolar D/H value inferred from the → solar wind implanted into lunar soils. Moreover, the D/H ratio derived from the interstellar Dα line (which is displaced from the → Lyman alpha line of 1H at 1216 Å by -0.33 Å) is 1.6 x 10-5 (Linsky et al. 1995, ApJ 451, 335).
High D/H ratios (relative to Earth's water) are measured spectroscopically from water in three comets (all from the → Oort cloud): → Halley (3.2 ± 0.1 x 10-4), → Hyakutake (2.9 ± 1.0 x 10-4), and → Hale-Bopp (3.3 ± 0.8 x 10-4). These are all about twice the D/H ratio for terrestrial water (1.49 x 10-4) and about 15 times the value for the above-mentioned solar nebula gas. Note that → carbonaceous chondrites have the highest water abundance of all → meteorites. Their D/H ratios range from 1.20 x 10-4 to 3.2 x10-4 with a case at (7.3 ± 1.2) x10-4.
Different authors interpret the high comet ratios in very different ways. Some consider the high D/H ratio as evidence against a cometary origin of most of the terrestrial water. Others, on the contrary, argue that comets are the main reservoir of deuterium-rich water that raised the terrestrial D/H a factor of six above the protosolar value.
For more details see "Sources of Terrestrial and Martian Water" by Campins, H. and Drake, M. (2010) in "Water & life: the unique properties of H20" Eds. R. Lynden-Bell et al. CRC Press, pp. 221- 234.

deuterium; → abundance.

deuterium burning
  سوزش ِ دوتریوم   
suzeš-e doteriom

Fr.: combustion du deutérium   

The fusion of a deuterium nucleus with a proton which produces the lightest isotope of helium: D + H → 3He + γ. Deuterium burning occurs in stellar cores at a temperature exceeding 106 K. The onset of deuterium burning marks the end of the → protostellar collapse. It is the only → nuclear reaction that occurs in → brown dwarfs. In normal stars, it is the second step in the → proton-proton chain which leads to the formation of 4He, allowing stars to arrive on the → main sequence.

deuterium; → burning.

deuterium enrichment
  پرداری ِ دوتریوم   
pordâri-ye doteriom

Fr.: enrichissement de deutérium   

The → enrichment of deuterium (D) with respect to → hydrogen (H) in → Solar System molecules when compared with the D/H ratio in the → interstellar → solar nebula. H-bearing molecules in → comets, → planets, and → chondrite  → meteorites show a systematic D enrichment relative to the → molecular hydrogen of the solar nebula. Because there is no nuclear source for D in the Universe, the observed → isotopic enrichment must have its origin in chemical reactions having faster reaction rates for D than for H. In the Solar nebula the → isotopic fractionation of D between → water and H followed the reversible reaction:
H2O + HD ⇔ HDO + H2.
At low temperatures, this reaction favors the concentration of D in HDO. In the → interstellar medium grain chemistry plays a crucial role in D enrichment. See also → enrichment factor.
Apart from → deuterium fractionation, D could be enriched through another mechanism. Since molecular hydrogen (H2) is more → volatile than molecular deuterium (D2), D/H ratio could increase in certain planets that orbit near their star.

deuterium; → enrichment.

deuterium enrichment factor
  کروند ِ پرباری ِ دوتریوم   
karvand-e pordâri-ye doteriom

Fr.: facteur d'enrichissement en deutérium   

The ratio between the D/H value in → water and in → molecular hydrogen, as expressed by:
f = [(1/2)HDO/H2O]/[(1/2)HD/H2] = (D/H)H2O/(D/H)H2.
When f> 1, there is → deuterium enrichment.

deuterium; → enrichment; → factor.

deuterium fractionation
  برخانش ِ دوتریوم   
barxâneš-e doteriom

Fr.: fractionnement de deutérium   

The difference between the deuterium (D)/hydrogen (H) → abundance → ratio in an object with respect to that representing a standard or mean value for that type of objects. Same as → isotope fractionation of deuterium. In the gas phase chemistry many of the D fractionation reactions produce an excess of D atoms relative to → hydrogen atoms. Deuterium fractionation in → interstellar cloud cores, → protostars, and → Solar System bodies is frequently used to infer important aspects of their physical and chemical histories. For example, the → deuterium enhancement in the Earth's sea water, with respect to the cosmic abundance, has been interpreted as being due to → enrichment by → comet-like → planetesimals colliding with the young Earth.

deuterium; → fractionation.

deuteron
  دوترون   
doteron (#)

Fr.:deutéron   

A nucleus of a deuterium atom (a combination of a proton and a neutron).

From Gk. deutero-, combining form of deuterios "second" + -ion a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles.

develop
  گوالیدن   
govâlidan (#)

Fr.: développer   

1) To elaborate or expand in detail, for example a theory.
2) To bring to a more advanced or effective state.
3) Math.: To express in an extended form, as in a → series. → developed turbulence, → development.

From M.Fr. développer, O.Fr. desveloper, from des- "undo" prefix + veloper "wrap up," of unknown origin.

Govâlidan, from Proto-Iranian *vi-uar, cf. Skt. vi-vardh- "to grow up; to blossom," Av. *vi-varəd-, from Skt./Av. prefix vi- "out, apart" + varəd- "to increase, augment, strengthen, cause to prosper," Mid.Pers. vâlitan, Mod.Pers. bâlidan "to grow, to wax great."

developed turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ گوالیده   
âšubnâki-ye govâlidé

Fr.: turbulence développée   

A regime of → turbulence characterized by a high → Reynolds number, showing many general aspects that are common to different flows (statistical symmetries, persistent dissipation, energy cascade, → intermittency). Despite those universal features, the understanding of developed turbulence remains as one of the greatest unsolved conceptual problems, on the borderline between mathematics and physics, with numerous ramifications from astrophysics through meteorology to engineering.

Developed, p.p. of → develop; → turbulence.

development
  گوالش   
govâleš (#)

Fr.: développement   

1) The act, process, or result of developing. The state of being developed.
2a) Math.: The act or process of → expanding an expression into another of equivalent value or meaning.
2b) The equivalent expression into which another has been developed.

From → develop + -ment suffix forming nouns from verbs.

Govâleš, from govâl, stem of govâlidan, → develop, + -eš verbal noun suffix, → -tion.

deviate
  ۱) کژ رفتن؛ ۲) کژ راه کردن   
1) kažraftan; 2) kažrâh kardan

Fr.: dévier   

1) (v. intr.) To turn aside, as from a way, course, etc. By extension, to depart from a course of action or acceptable norm.
2) (v.tr.) To cause to turn aside. → deviation, → standard deviation.

From L.L. deviatus "turned from the straight road," p.p. of deviare, from → de- + via "road," + -ate.

1) Kažraftan, from kaž "crooked, bent, being aside" (cf. Skt. kubja- "hump-backed, crooked," Pali kujja- "bent," L. gibbus "hump, hunch," Lith. kupra "hump") + raftan "to go, walk, proceed" (present tense stem row-, Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").
2) Kažrâh kardan, from kaž, as above, + râh "way, path" (Mid.Pers. râh, râs "way, street," from *rāθa-, cf. Av. ratha- "chariot," akin to Skt. rathah "car, chariot," L. rota "wheel," rotare "revolve, roll," Lith. ratas "wheel," O.H.G. rad, Ger. Rad, Du. rad, O.Ir. roth; PIE *roto- "to run, to turn, to roll") + kardan "to do, to make," Mid.Pers. kardan, O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build," Av. kərənaoiti "makes," cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

deviation
  کژ رفت   
kažraft

Fr.: déviation   

The act of deviating; departure from a standard or norm.
Statistics: The difference between a datum and some reference value, typically the mean of the data. → standard deviation.

Verbal noun form of → deviate.

device
  دستگاه   
dastgâh (#)

Fr.: appareil, dispositif   

Something, thought out, invented, or adapted, for a special purpose.
Assembly of parts or pieces in one body to perform a work, observe a phenomenon, or for measuring.

From O.Fr. devis "division, separation, disposition, wish," from L. divisus, p.p. of dividere "to divide," → divide.

Dastgâh "means, implement, apparatus," originally "wealth, splendour," from dast "strength, superiority," originally "hand" (Mid.Pers. dast, O.Pers. dasta-, Av. zasta-, cf. Skt. hásta-, Gk. kheir, L. praesto "at hand," Arm. jern "hand," Lith. pa-žastis "arm-pit;" PIE *ghes-to-) + gâh "place, time," O.Pers. gāθu-, Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot" (Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode," PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

devil
  دیو   
div (#)

Fr.: diable   

An evil spirit; demon. → dust devil.

M.E. devel, from O.E. deofol, from L.L. diabolus, from Gk. diabolos, literally, "slanderer," from diaballein "to throw across, slander," from dia- "across, through" + ballein to "throw."

Div "devil, demon" (Mid.Pers. dêw; O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Skt. deva-; Gk. Zeus "supreme god;" L. deus "god;" PIE base *deiwos "god," from *dei- "to gleam, to shine").

dew
  شبنم   
šabnam (#)

Fr.: rosée   

1) Water condensed onto grass and other objects near the ground, the temperatures of which have fallen below the dewpoint of the surface air due to radiational cooling during the night, but are still above freezing.
2) Moisture in small drops on a surface.

O.E. deaw, from P.Gmc. *dawwaz, O.H.G. tow, Gk. thein, "to run," thoos "quick," PIE base *dheu- "to run, flow" (cf. Pers. dav-, davidan "to run," Skt. dhav- "to run, flow," dhavati "flows, runs").

Šabnam, from šabnight + nam "moisture; dew; wet," Mid.Pers. namb, nam, Av. napta- "moist," nabas-câ "cloud," nabah- "sky," Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist, sky," Gk. nephos "cloud," L. nebula "mist," PIE base *nebhos- "moisture, cloud, mist."

dew cap
  کلاهک ِ شبنم   
kolâhak-e šabnam

Fr.: pare-buée   

A hollow tube that extends out in front of the objective lens (refractors) or corrector lens (Schmidt-Cassegrains). It shields the exposed optics from wide exposure to the cool ambient air, slowing heat loss and preventing dew formation. Reflector telescopes do not need dew caps because the main mirror rests at the bottom of the tube, which acts as a dew shield.

dew + cap, from O.E. cæppe "hood, head-covering," from L.L. cappa "a cape, hooded cloak."

Kolâhak, from kolâh "cap," see below, + similarity suffix -ak. Kolâh "cap," cf. L. celare "to hide, conceal," occulere "to dissimulate," Gk. kalyptein "to cover," kalia "hut, nest," Skt. cala "hut, house," Goth. hilms "helmet," huljan "cover over," hulistr "covering," E. hull "seed covering," from O.E. hulu, from O.H.G. hulla, hulsa, O.E. hol "cave;" PIE base *kel- "conceal." Šabnamdew.

dew point
  نقطه‌ی ِ شبنم   
noqte-ye šabnam (#)

Fr.: point de rosée   

The temperature to which a given air parcel must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapor content in order for saturation to occur.

dew; → point.

dewar
  دو‌ءر   
dewar

Fr.: dewar, vase dewar   

Insulated bottle containing a cryogenic fluid. The electronic detectors operated at very low temperature are mounted inside a dewar.

Named after its inventor Sir James Dewar (1842-1923), Scottish chemist and physicist.

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