diffuse interstellar cloud
abr-e andaraxtari-ye paxšidé
Fr.: nuage interstellaire diffus
An → interstellar cloud in which hydrogen is completely dissociated and which is less dense and dusty than → molecular clouds. In diffuse interstellar clouds photoabsorption of the background → ultraviolet (UV) radiation field is an important dissociating and ionizing process. Typical densities and temperatures of diffuse clouds are 102 to 103 cm-3 and 20 to 100 K respectively. Because of modest extinctions (≤ 1 mag), → photodissociation processes are important in diffuse clouds preventing the formation of larger molecules.
diffuse interstellar medium
madim-e andaraxtari-ye paxšidé
Fr.: milieu interstellaire diffus
The interstellar matter outside condensed molecular clouds. Diffuse interstellar medium consists of a hot intercloud medium, a warm intercloud medium, and a cold neutral medium with hydrogen atom densities nH ~ 0.003, ~ 0.25, and ~ 40 cm-3, and mean gas → kinetic temperatures Tk ~ 5 x 105, ~ 104, and 80 K, respectively.
diffuse molecular cloud
abr-e molekuli-ye paxšidé
Fr.: nuage moléculaire diffus
A type of → molecular cloud in which the → interstellar radiation field is sufficiently attenuated, so that the local fraction of → molecular hydrogen (H2) becomes substantial (> 0.1). However, enough interstellar radiation is still present to → photoionize any atomic carbon, or to → photodissociate → carbon monoxide (CO) such that carbon is predominantly still in the form of C+ (> 0.5). In steady state, diffuse molecular clouds must necessarily be surrounded by diffuse atomic gas, in order to provide the → shielding of radiation. This means that most sightlines that cross a diffuse molecular cloud will also cross → diffuse atomic gas (Snow & McCall, 2006, ARA&A 44, 367).
Fr.: nébuleuse diffuse
An irregularly shaped and low density interstellar cloud visible in the optical wavelengths.
Fr.: réflexion diffuse
Reflection of light from a rough or granular surface, which takes place in all directions due to the microscopic irregularities of the interface; opposed to → specular reflection.
Fr.: transmission diffuse
Transmission accompanied by diffusion or scatter to the extent that there is no regular or direct transmission.
A device used to scatter or disperse light emitted from a source.
From → diffuse + -er.
1) Movement of a gas or liquid as a result of the random thermal motion of its atoms or
L. diffusionem, from stem of diffundere "scatter, pour out," from dif- "apart, in every direction," → dis-, + fundere "to melt, cast, pour out," from PIE *gheud-, from root *gheu- "to pour."
Paxš, verbal noun and stem of paxšidan→ diffuse.
Fr.: coefficient de diffusion
A factor of proportionality involved in the → diffusion equation. It may be defined as the amount of the quantity diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time. → magnetic diffusivity.
Fr.: équation de diffusion
An equation that expresses the time rate of change of a quantity in terms of the product of the diffusion coefficient and the → Laplacian operating on the quantity. For example the diffusion equation for temperature is: ∂T/∂t = D∇2T.
Fr.: région de diffusion
A narrow boundary layer above the solar → photosphere, between two magnetic field lines, where the plasma becomes demagnetized or unfrozen. The presence of a localized magnetic region is necessary for → magnetic reconnection.
Fr.: diffusif, de diffusion
Tending to diffuse; characterized by → diffusion.
paxšandegi, hamgar-e paxš
Fr.: coefficient de diffusion
1) The ability to permit or undergo diffusion.
A symbol, numeral, or graphic character that represents an integer.
From L. digitus "finger, toe."
Raqam, from Ar.
1) Of or pertaining to a digit.
râyângar-e raqami (#)
Fr.: ordinateur numérique
A computer that accepts and operates with → discrete data in the form of combinations of digits, letters, or other characters. In modern terminology, generally called computer.
1) Having formed by two half-planes which intersect.
Fr.: angle dièdre
An angle formed by two planes meeting along a common line. Compare with → face angle.
A figure formed by two intersecting planes.