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distance function karyâ-ye apest Fr.: fonction de distance Same as → metric. |
distance modulus peymun-e apest Fr.: module de distance The difference between the → apparent magnitude (m) of a star or galaxy and its → absolute magnitude (M). It is given by m - M = 5 log d - 5, where d is the distance in → parsecs. For an object that is 10 pc away, the distance modulus is zero. |
distance to the horizon apest-e ofoq Fr.: distance à l'horizon The distance separating an observer and the → apparent horizon of the place. Neglecting the → atmospheric refraction, it is given by: d = (2Rh)^{1/2}, where R is the radius of the Earth and h is the observer's height. This can be approximated to: d (km) = 3.57(h)^{1/2} for a typical value of R = 6378 km. The atmospheric refraction, however, makes the thing more complex, depending on the temperature and density variations along the line of sight. Generally, refraction pushes the apparent horizon about 10% farther. |
distort cowlé kardan, cowlidan Fr.: déformer, altérer To twist awry or out of shape; make crooked or deformed (Dictionary.com). From L. distortus, p.p. of distorquere "to distort," from → dis-, + torquere "to twist." Cowlé "distorted, crooked, bent," variants [Mo'in] kowlé, kal, kil, Lori cowel, Laki hoval, hol, Malâyeri caval, hol, Tabari, Aftari val, Mid.Pers. xwahl "bent, crooked;" PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline" from which is also derived Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline," L. clinare "to bend," → declination. |
distortion cowlegi (#), cowleš Fr.: distorsion, déformation 1) Extent to which a system, optical, acoustic, or electronic, fails to reproduce
accurately at its output the characteristics of the input. Verbal noun of → distort. |
distribute vâbâžidan (#) Fr.: distribuer 1) (v.tr.) To divide and dispense in portions; to disperse through a space or
over an area. Distribute, from L. distributus p.p. of distribute "deal out in portions," from → dis- + tribuere "to pay, assign, allot," from tribus "tribe." Vâbâžidan, infinitive of vâbâž, from vâ-→ dis- + bâž "tribute, toll, impost," from Mid.Pers. bâj, bâž "tribute, tax," baxtan "to distribute," baxt "luck, fate," O.Pers. bāji- "tribute, tax," Av. bag- "to distribute, divide, allot," cf. Skt. bhaj- "to share, distribute, apportion," Gk. phagein "to eat (to have a share of food)"; PIE base *bhag- "to share out, apportion;" → division. |
distribution vâbâžeš (#) Fr.: distribution An act or instance of distributing; the state or manner of being distributed; something that is distributed. → binomial distribution, → Bose-Einstein distribution, → brightness distribution, → chi-square distribution, → cumulative distribution function, → distribution function, → Gaussian distribution, → Gibbs canonical distribution, → lognormal distribution, → Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, → normal distribution, → Poisson distribution, → power-law distribution, → probability distribution, → spectral energy distribution. Verbal noun of → distribute |
distribution function karyâ-ye vâbâžeš Fr.: fonction de distribution A function that gives the relative frequency with which the value of a statistical variable may be expected to lie within any specified interval. For example, the Maxwellian distribution of velocities gives the number of particles, in different velocity intervals, in a unit volume. → distribution; → function. |
distributive vâbâžeši Fr.: distributif Characterized by or relating to → distribution. → distributive law. → distibution; → -ive. |
distributive law qânun-e vâbâžš Fr.: loi distributive Math.: In multiplication, the principle that permits the multiplier to be applied separately to each term in the multiplicand: x(y + z) = xy + xz. → associative law; → commutative law. → distributive; → law. |
distributivity vâbâžandegi Fr.: distributivité The state or quality of being distributive. Noun of → distributive. |
disturb parišândan (#) Fr.: déranger, perturber 1) To interfere with; interrupt; hinder. M.E., from O.Fr. destorber, from L. disturbare "to throw into disorder," from → dis- "completely" + turbare "to disorder, disturb," from turba "turmoil," → turbid. Parišândan, infinitive from parišân "dispersed, scattered," also parišidan "to disperse, get disturbed," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *parišan- literally "disperse around," from *pari-, Pers. par-, pirâ-, → peri-, + *šan- "to shake;" cf. afšândan, → volcano; Choresmian šny- "to tremble;" Zazaki šânâyiš/šânen- "to shake, scatter;" Kurd râšândin "to spread;" Tabari šanne "he shakes" (Cheung 2007). |
disturbance parišâneš Fr.: dérangement, perturbation The act of disturbing. The state of being disturbed. Verbal noun of → disturb. |
diurnal ruzâné (#) Fr.: diurne Having a period of, occurring in, or related to a → day. L.L. diurnalis, from V.L. diurnum "day" (Fr. jour), from L. diurnus "daily," from dies "day" + -urnus, an adj. suffix denoting time. Dies "day" from PIE base *dyeu- "to shine;" cf. Gk. delos "clear;" L. deus; Skt. deva "god;" Mod.Pers. div "devil, demon;" O.Pers. daiva- "evil god, demon;" Av. daēva- "evil spirit, false god;" Gk. Zeus "supreme god." Ruzâné, from ruz→ day + -âné a suffix forming adverbs and adjectives. |
diurnal aberration birâheš-e ruzâné Fr.: aberration diurne The aberration of a star's position due to the rotation of the Earth. Its value depends on the latitude of the observer, and is only 0''.32 in the case of an observer at the equator, where the rotational velocity is greatest. → diurnal; → aberration. |
diurnal circle parhun-e ruzâné, dâyere-ye ~ Fr.: cercle diurne The apparent path of an object in the sky during one day, due to Earth's rotation. |
diurnal motion jonbeš-e ruzâné Fr.: mouvement diurne The daily apparent motion of all celestial objects, due to Earth's rotation. |
diurnal parallax didgašt-e ruzâné Fr.: parallaxe diurne The apparent difference between the position of a celestial object measured from the Earth's surface and the position that would be recorded by a hypothetical observer at the center of the Earth. Same as → geocentric parallax. |
dive 1) quté, 2) quté xordan Fr.: 1) plongon; 2) plonger 1a) An act or instance of diving. M.E. diven "to dive, dip," O.E. dufan (strong verb) "to dive, duck, sink" and dyfan "to dip, submerge" (weak, transitive), related to → deep. Quté is possibly Pers., since Farhang-e Asadai records it with "t" and not Ar. "tayn" (Dehxoda), although its etymology is not established. We propose ultimately from Proto-Ir. *ui-pat-, from *pat- "to fall, to fly," to which is related Pers. oft-, oftâdan "to → fall;" cf. Pashto. qupah "a dip, a dive, a plunge." |
diverge vâgerâyidan (#) Fr.: diverger (v.intr.) To move, or extend in different directions from a common point. M.L. divergere, from → di- "apart," variant of → dis- + vergere "to bend, turn, incline," from PIE *werg- "to turn," from base *wer- "to turn, bend" (cf. L. vertere "to turn," Av. varət- "to turn," Mod.Pers. gard, gardidan "to turn," Skt. vartate "turns round, rolls," Gk. rhatane "stirrer, ladle," Ger. werden, O.E. weorðan "to become." Verâyidan, from vâ- "apart," → de-, + gerâyidan "to incline toward; to intend; to make for," infinitive of gerâ, the etymology of which is not clear. Gerâ may be a variant of Mod.Pers. kil "bent, inclined" (k/g and l/r interchanges), from PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline," cognate with L. clinare "to bend" (E. declination, inclination, etc.), Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline," Skt. sri- "to lean," O.Pers. θray-, Av. sray- "to lean," P.Gmc. *khlinen (Ger. lehnen, E. lean). |
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