An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 692
degenerate
  واگن   
vâgen (#)

Fr.: dégénéré   

Characterized by or associated with → degeneracy.

L. degeneratus, p.p. of degenerare "depart from one's kind, fall from ancestral quality," from → de- + gener-, stem of genus "race, stock, kind," gignere "to beget," cf. with Gk. genos "race, kind," gonos "birth, offspring," from PIE base *gen-/*gon-/*gn- "to produce, beget, be born," cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born," zana- "race" (in sruuô.zana- "belonging to the race of the horned ones"), O.Pers. zana- "tribe" (in paru-zana- "consisting of many tribes"), Skt. janati "begets, bears," jana- "creature, human being, race, tribe, people."

Vâgen, from vâ-, → de-, + gen "kind," (as in hamgen "of the same kind, like each other; friend, partner," from ham- "together," → com- + gen "kind," O.Pers./Av. zana- "race; tribe," cognate with L. genus, as above). Alternatively, gen may be a variant of Mid./Mod.Pers. gôn/gun "kind, type; manner; color, skin color," from Av. gaona- "hair, hair color, color."

degenerate dwarf
  کوتوله‌ی ِ واگن   
kutule-ye vâgen

Fr.: naine dégénérée   

Same as → white dwarf.

degenerate; → dwarf.

degenerate matter
  ماده‌ی ِ واگن   
mâdde-ye vâgen (#)

Fr.: matière dégénérée   

Highly compressed matter in which the normal atomic structure has broken down and which, because of quantum-mechanical effects, exerts a pressure that is independent of temperature. Bodies with masses less than → Chandrasekhar's limit (1.4 solar masses) are supported by electron → degeneracy pressure and have densities of about 106 kg/m3. In collapsed stars of mass above 1.4 solar masses, gravity will overwhelm electron degeneracy and further collapse ensues. Electrons combine with protons to form neutrons, so producing a → neutron star. Because neutrons, like electrons, are → fermions and therefore subject to the → Pauli exclusion principle, at high enough densities, about 1014 kg/m3, neutron degeneracy pressure prevents further collapse of the star. For masses larger than 2-3 solar masses, even neutron degeneracy cannot prevent further collapse, and a → black hole is formed.

degenerate; → matter.

degrade
  واپداکیدن   
vâpadâkidan

Fr.: dégrader   

1) To lower in dignity or estimation; bring into contempt.
2) To lower in character or quality; debase.
3) Chemistry: Of a compound, especially an organic hydrocarbon, to break down (Dictionary.com).

de-; → grade.

degree
  درجه   
darajé (#)

Fr.: degré   

1) Subdivision of an interval in a scale of measurement.
2) Geometry: Measure of angle, the 360th part of a circle.
3) Math.: Rank of an equation or expression as determined by the sum of the exponents of the variables.

From O.Fr. degré, from V.L. *degradus "a step," from L.L. degredare, from L. → de- "down" + gradus "step."

Darajé, from Ar. darajat "step, ladder."

degree of freedom
  درجه‌ی ِ آزادی   
daraje-ye âzâdi (#)

Fr.: degré de liberté   

Of a → mechanical system, the number of → independent variables needed to describe its configuration.

degree; → freedom.

degree of ionization
  درجه‌ی ِ یونش   
daraje-ye yoneš (#)

Fr.: degré d'ionisation   

The number of electrons a neutral atom has lost in an ionizing physical process (radiation, shock, collision). In spectroscopy, the degree of ionization is indicated by a Roman numeral following the symbol for the element. A neutral atom is indicated by the Roman numeral I, a singly ionized atom, one which has lost one electron, is indicated by II, and so on. Thus O VI indicates an oxygen atom which has lost five electrons.

degree; → ionization.

degree of polarization
  درجه‌ی ِ قطبش   
daraje-ye qotbeš

Fr.: degré de polarisation   

The ratio of the intensity of polarized portion of light to the total intensity at a point in the beam.

degree; → polarization.

degree of stability
  درجه‌ی ِ پایداری   
daraje-ye pâydâri

Fr.: degré de stabilité   

Statics: The → energy that must be expended to permanently disturb a specific state of → equilibrium of a body.

degree; → stability.

degree of vertex
  درجه‌ی ِ تارک   
daraje-ye târak

Fr.: degré de vertex   

The → number of → edges incident on the → vertex.

degree; → vertex.

dehumanization
  مرتوگان‌زدایی   
martugân zodâyi

Fr.: déshumanisation   

The act or process or an instance of dehumanizing.

Verbal noun of → dehumanize.

dehumanize
  مرتوگان زدودن   
martugân zodudan

Fr.: déshumaniser   

To deprive of → human qualities or personality.

de-; → dehumanize.

Deimos
  دیموس   
Deymos (#)

Fr.: Deimos   

The smaller and outermost of Mars' two satellites. It measures 12.6 km in size, and orbits Mars every 30.2 hours at a distance of about 23,500 km. It was discovered by the American astronomer Asaph Hall in 1877.

In Gk. mythology, Deimos, meaning "fear, terror," is one of the sons of Ares (Mars) and Aphrodite (Venus).

deionization
  وایونش   
vâyoneš

Fr.: désionisation   

Chemistry: A process in which all charged species are removed from a solution.
The return of an ionized gas to its non-ionized state after the ionizing source has been removed.

From → de- + → ionization.

deism
  دادارباوری، ایزدباوری   
dâdâr-bâvari (#), izad-bâvari

Fr.: déisme   

1) Belief in the existence of a → God on the evidence of → reason and → nature only, with rejection of supernatural revelation (distinguished from → theism).
2) Belief in a God who created the world but has since remained indifferent to it (Dictionary.com).

From Fr. déisme, from L. de(us) "god," → deity, + → -ism.

Dâdâr-bâvari, from dâdâr "creator," → author, + bâvari, → ism; izad-bâvari, from izad "god," → deity.

deist
  دادارباور، ایزدباور   
dâdâr-bâvar (#), izad-bâvar

Fr.: déiste   

A person who believes in → deism.

deism; → -ist

deity
  ۱) ایزد؛ ۲) ایزدگان   
1) izad (#); 2) izadgân

Fr.: 1) dieu, déesse; 2) divinité   

1) A god or goddess.
2) Divine character or nature, especially that of the Supreme Being; divinity (Dictionary.com).

M.E. deite, from O.Fr., from L.L. deitat- (nominative deitas), from L. dei- (combining form of deus "god") + -tat- "-ty," formed after L. divinitas "divinity."

Izad "god;" from Mid.Pers. yazêt "god; angel," izišn "performance of the religious rites, worship," yašt "worship, religious ceremony," yaštan "to venerate, to perform the religious ceremony;" O.Pers. yad- "to worship;" Av. yaz- "to sacrifice, worship, venerate," yazata- "deities," yasna- "religious rite" (Mod.Pers. jašn "feast"); Proto-Ir. *iaz- "to sacrifice, worship, venerate."

del operator
  آپارگر ِ دل   
âpârgar-e del

Fr.: opérateur del   

In → vector calculus, a vector → partial derivative represented by the symbol → nabla and defined in three dimensions to be:
∇ = (∂/∂x)i + (∂/∂y)j + (∂/∂z)k.
It appears in the operations → gradient: ∇f, → divergence: ∇ . E, → curl: ∇ x E, and → Laplacian: ∇ . ∇f = ∇2f.

From Gk. alphabet letter delta.

delay
  درنگ   
derang (#)

Fr.: retard   

The amount of time by which an event is retarded.

From O.Fr. délaier, from dé-de- "away, from" + laiier, from laiss(i)er "to leave," from L. laxare "to loosen, release, set free."

Derang, from Mid.Pers. dirang, drang "delay, lateness; long, lasting," Av. drənj- "to fix, fasten, hold," Proto-Iranian *dra(n)j- "to fix, fasten, hold."

delay time
  زمان ِ درنگ   
zamân-e derang

Fr.: temps de retard, délai   

Same as → delay.

delay; → time.

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