An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 430
force system
  راژمان ِ نیروها   
râžmân-e niruhâ

Fr.: système de forces   

Any set of forces acting on a → rigid body.

force; → system.

force-free magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ بی‌نیرو   
meydân-meqnâtisi-ye bi-niru

Fr.: champ magnétique sans force   

The condition in a plasma when the → Lorentz force is zero, that is when the electric current flows along the magnetic field. Force-free magnetic fields are encountered in astrophysical plasmas with negligible gas pressure. The solar corona is the best available example of such fields in action in a plasma.

force; → free; → magnetic; → field.

forced
  زوری   
zuri (#)

Fr.: forcé   

1) Physics: Caused by an external force. → forced oscillation.
2) General: Subjected to force, compulsory.

Adjective from → force.

Adjective from zur, → strength.

forced flow
  تچان ِ زوری   
tacân-e zuri

Fr.: écoulement forcé   

A fluid flow generated when external forces cause the fluid to flow, for example when a flow is caused by a pump. It contrasts with → free flow.

forced; → flow.

forced oscillation
  نوش ِ زوری   
naveš-e zuri

Fr.: oscillation forcée   

The oscillation of a system or object induced by an external periodic force. See also → free oscillation.

forced; → oscillation.

foreground
  پیش-زمینه   
pišzaminé

Fr.: avant-plan   

The ground or parts situated, or represented as situated, in the front; the portion of a scene or stellar field nearest to the viewer. → background.

From fore, from O.E. fore (prep.) "before, in front of;" (adv.) "before, previously" (cf. O.H.G. fora, Ger. vor, Goth. faiura); from PIE *per-/*pr- (cf. Skt. pura "before, formerly;" Av. paro "before;" Hittite para- "on, forth;" Gk. paros "before," para "from beside, beyond," peri "around, about, toward," pro "before;" L. pro "before, for, instead of," prae "before," per "through, for") + ground, from M.E., from O.E. grund; akin to O.H.G. grunt "ground."

Pišzaminé, from piš- "before; in front," from Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier;" O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of" + ziminé "ground," from zamin "earth, ground" → earth.

foreground absorption
  درشم ِ پیش-زمینه   
daršam-e pišzaminé

Fr.: absorption d'avant-plan   

Loss of radiant energy received from an astronomical object due to the presence of absorbing matter situated between the object and observer.

foreground; → absorption.

forest
  جنگل   
jangal (#)

Fr.: forêt   

1) A large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush; woodland (Dictionary.com).
2) In → graph theory, a → graph which contains no → cycles. The connected components of a forest are → trees.

M.E., from O.Fr. forest, probably from L.L. forestis (silva) "the outside woods," from L. foris "outside."

Jangal "a wood, forest, a vast land with plenty of trees;" cf. Skt. jangala- "arid , sparingly grown with trees and plants."

fork
  دوشاخ، دوشاخه؛ چنگال   
došâx, došâxé; cangâl

Fr.: fourche; forchette   

1) An instrument having two or more prongs or tines, for holding, lifting, etc., as an implement for handling food or any of various agricultural tools (dictionary.com).
2) Something resembling or suggesting this in form. → fork mounting.

Fork, from O.E. forca, from L. furca "pitchfork," of uncertain origin; → mounting.

Došâx, došâxé "two-pronged; fork," from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do, Av. dva-, Skt. dvi-, Gk. duo, L. duo, E. two, Ger. zwei, Fr. deux) + šâx "branch; horn," from Mid.Pers. šâk "branch;" cf. Lith. šaka "branch;" O.S. soxa "plough;" Gothic hoha "plough."
Cangâl "claws, fingers," from cang "claws, fingers," + -al, → -al.

fork mounting
  برنشاند ِ دوشاخه   
barnešând-e došâxé

Fr.: monture à fourche   

A type of → equatorial mounting consisting of a two-pronged fork, which forms the → polar axis, with the → telescope pivoted between the prongs of the fork on a → declination axis.

fork; → mounting.

form
  ۱) دیس، دیسه؛ ۲) دیسیدن؛ ۳) دیساندن   
1) dis, disé (#); 2) disidan (#); 3) disândan (#)

Fr.: 1) forme; 2) se former; 3) former   

1) (n.) General: The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material.
Philosophy: The structure, pattern, organization, or essential nature of anything. Structure or pattern as distinguished from matter.
Logic: The abstract relations of terms in a proposition, and of propositions to one another.
2) (v.intr.) of form.
3) (v.tr.) of form.

From O.Fr. forme, from L. forma "form, mold, shape, case," origin unknown.

1) Dis, disé "form, appearance," variants -diz, -diš (tandis "body form, like a body; effigy;" mâhdis "moon-like;" šabdiz "night color; a horse of dark rusty color;" andiš- "to think, contemplate"), from Mid.Pers. dêsag "form, appearance," dêsidan "to form, build;" Av. daēs- "to show," daēsa- "sign, omen;" cf. Skt. deś- "to show, point out;" PIE *deik- "to show" (cf. Gk. deiknumi "to show," dike "manner, custom;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach").
2) and 3) corresponding infintives of dis, as above.

formal
  دیسه‌ای، دیسه‌ور   
diseyi, desevar

Fr.: formel   

1) According to, or following established or prescribed forms, conventions, etc.
2) Math., logic: Of a proof, in strict logical form with a justification for every step.
3) Math., logic: Of a calculation, correct in form; made with strict justification for every step; of or pertaining to manipulation of symbols without regard to their meaning.
4) → formal language.
5) → formal logic.

M.E. formal, formel, from L. formalis, from → form + → -al.

Diseyi, desevar, from dis, → form, + adj. suffixes -i and -var.

formal language
  زبان ِ دیسه‌ور   
zabân-e disevar

Fr.: langage formel   

A language designed for use in situations in which natural language is unsuitable, as for example in → mathematics, → logic, or → computer  → programming. The symbols and formulas of such languages stand in precisely specified syntactic and semantic relations to one another (Dictionary.com).

formal; → language.

formal logic
  گوییک ِ دیسه‌ای، ~ دیسه‌ور   
guyik-e diseyi, ~ disevar

Fr.: logique formelle   

The traditional or → classical logic in which the → validity or → invalidity of a conclusion is deduced from two or more statements (→ premises). Based on Aristotle's (384-322 BC) theory of → syllogism, systematized in his book "Organon," its focus is not on what is stated (the content) but on the structure (form) of the → argument and the validity of the inference drawn from the premises of the argument; if the premises are true then the logical consequence must also be true. Formal logic is → bivalent, that is it recognizes only two → truth values: → true and → false. The basic principles of formal logic are: 1) → principle of identity, 2) → principle of excluded middle, and 3) → principle of non-contradiction. See also → symbolic logic, → fuzzy logic.

formal; → logic.

formal system
  راژمان ِ دیسه‌ور   
râžmân-e diseyi, ~ disevar

Fr.: système formel   

In logic and mathematics, a system in which statements can be constructed and manipulated with logical rules.

formal; → system.

formaldehyde (H2CO)
  فورمالدهید   
formâldehid

Fr.: formaldehyde   

A colorless gas with a pungent, suffocating odor used as an adhering component of glues in many wood products. Formaldehyde (H2CO) is obtained most commonly by the oxidation of methanol or petroleum gases such as methane, ethane, etc.
In the → interstellar medium, formaldehyde is formed the surface of → dust grains. It is then converted into gas phase by → photodesorption. H2CO was the first → organic molecule discovered in the ISM (Lewis E. Snyder et al. 1969, Phys. Rev. Lett., 22, 679).

From form(ic) acid, from Fr. formique, + → aldehyde.

formalism
  دیسه‌گرایی   
disegerâyi

Fr.: formalisme   

1) Excessive adherence to prescribed forms.
2) Math., Logic: → Formalized expression of a set of elements; the nature of such expression.
3) A philosophical view of mathematics in which mathematics, including the logic used in proofs, can be based on the formal manipulation of symbols irrespective of their meaning.

From → formal + → -ism.

formality
  دیسه‌وری   
disevari

Fr.: formalité   

1) Condition or quality of being formal; accordance with required or traditional rules, procedures, etc.
2) Strict adherence to established rules and procedures (Dictionary.com).

formal; → -ity.

formalization
  دیسه‌ورش   
disevareš

Fr.: formalisation   

1) The act of giving something a form or structure by introducing rules and procedures.
2) The act of formalizing.

formalize; → -tion.

formalize
  دیسه‌ور کردن، دیسه‌وریدن   
disevar kardan, disevaridan

Fr.: formaliser   

1) To state in symbolic form; to give a definite structure to.
2) To give something legal or formal status.

From → formal + → -ize.

Compound verb, from disevar, → formal, + kardan "to do, to make;" Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

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