An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 433

Fr.: formalisation   

1) The act of giving something a form or structure by introducing rules and procedures.
2) The act of formalizing.

formalize; → -tion.

  دیسه‌ور کردن، دیسه‌وریدن   
disevar kardan, disevaridan

Fr.: formaliser   

1) To state in symbolic form; to give a definite structure to.
2) To give something legal or formal status.

From → formal + → -ize.

Compound verb, from disevar, → formal, + kardan "to do, to make;" Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make."

  ۱) دیسار؛ ۲) دیساریدن   
1) disâr; 2) disâridan

Fr.: 1) format; 2) formater   

1) General: The way in which something is presented, organized, or arranged.
Publishing: The shape and size of a book, magazine, or newspaper, including the typeface, binding, quality of paper, margins, etc.
Computers: The structure or arrangement of digital data in a specific type of file. A computer program accepts data as input in a certain format, processes it, and provides it as output in the same or another format.
2) Computers: To prepare a storage medium, usually a disk, for reading and writing.

From Fr. format, from Mod.L. liber formatus "a book formed" (in such and such a way), referring to shape, size; from formatus p.p. of formare "to form," → form.

1) Disâr, from dis, → form + -âr contraction of âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").
2) Infinitive from dis, → form.


Fr.: formation   

1) The act or process of forming or the state of being formed, such as → star formation.
2) Geology: A laterally continuous rock unit with a distinctive set of characteristics that make it possible to recognize and map from one → outcrop or well to another. The basic rock unit of stratigraphy.

Verbal noun of → form, + -ate + -ion.

Diseš, verbal noun of disidan, → from dis-, → form, + -eš.


Fr.: formatage   

The process of preparing a hard disk or other storage medium for use by an operating system. Before a hard disk can be used, it needs to be formatted so that it will be able to store files and applications.

format; → -ing.

formic acid (HCOOH)
  سید فورمیک   
asid formik (#)

Fr.: acide formique   

A colorless, corrosive fuming liquid with pungent odor. It occurs in various plants and in the venom of many ant species. Used in dyeing, tanning, and electroplating. Also called methanoic acid. HCOOH is the simplest organic acid and the first identified in the interstellar medium (Zuckerman et al. 1971, ApJ, 163, L41). It has been observed principally in star-forming regions such as Orion KL, Sgr B2, Sgr A, and W51 and is associated with → hot molecular cores and → massive star formation. Recently, it has also been shown to be present in some → hot corinos associated with formation of stars similar to our Sun. Due to the presence of carboxyl radical (COOH), it plays an important role in the pathway formation of → prebiotic molecules like amino acids, in the interstellar clouds and comets (see, e.g., Lattanzi et al. 2008, ApJS 176, 536).

From L. formica "ant," ultimately from from PIE *morwi-, *wormiko- "ant;" cf. Av. maoiri-; Mid.Per. môr; Pers. mur, murcé "ant;" Skt. vamra- "ant;" Gk. murmeks, wormikas; O.C.S. mraviji; O.Ir. moirb; O.N. maurr.


Fr.: formule   

1) Physics, Math.: A statement of facts in a symbolical or general form, by substitution in which a result applicable to particular data may be obtained.
2) Chemistry: An expression of the constituents of a compound by symbols and figures.

From L. formula "form, rule, method, formula," literally "small form," from forma, → form, + → -ule diminutive suffix.

Disul, from dis, → form, + -ul, → -ule.


Fr.: formuler   

To express in precise → form; state definitely or systematically. To reduce to or express in a → formula.

Verbal form of → form.


Fr.: formulation   

1) The act or process of formulating.
2) A particular expression of an idea, thought, or theory.
3) Something prepared according to a → formula.

formulate; → -tion.

Kuré (#)

Fr.: Fourneau   

The Chemical Furnace. A faint → constellation in the southern sky, representing a chemist's furnace. Its brightest star, Alpha Fornacis, is a double of magnitudes 4.0 and 6.5. Abbreviation: For; genitive: Fornacis.

L. fornax "oven, kiln," related to fornus, furnus "oven," and to formus "warm," from PIE base *ghworm-/*ghwerm- "warm" (cf. Mod./Mid.Pers. garm "warm;" O.Pers./Av. garəma- "hot, warm;" Skt. gharmah "heat;" Gk. thermos "warm;" cf. O.E. wearm; O.H.G., Ger. warm).
Fornax was created and named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762) in honor of Antoine Lavoisier, the French chemist, who was guillotined in the French Revolution in 1794. He created it out of several faint stars in the constellation → Eridanus.

Kuré "furnace;" Tabari kalə "furnace," kəlen "ash;" Laki koira; Kurd. kulan, kulandan "to cook;" Laki koira; Kurd. kulan, kulandan "to cook;" related to garm "warm;" cf. Skt. ghar- "to burn;" E. kiln "furnace, oven," from L. culina "cooking stove, kitchen;" PIE root *gwher- "to warm, be warm," → warm.

Fornax cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ کوره   
xuše-ye kuré

Fr.: amas de Fourneau   

The second richest → cluster of galaxies within 100 million light-years, although it is much smaller than the → Virgo cluster.

Fornax; → cluster.

cehel (#)

Fr.: quarante   

A cardinal number, ten times four.

M.E. fourti, O.E. feowertig, from feower, → four, + tig "group of ten" (cf. O.S. fiwartig, Du. veertig, O.H.G. fiorzug, Ger. vierzig, Goth. fidwor tigjus.

Cehel (short form cel); Mid.Pers. cehel "forty;" Av. caθwarəsa(n)t- "forty," from caθwar-, → four, + sant-, sat "ten;" cf. Skt. catvārimśát- "forty."

  پیش-سو؛ ۲) پیش-سو کردن   
1) piš-su; 2) piš-su kardan

Fr.: en avant, en avance   

1a) To or toward what is ahead or in front.
1b) Directed toward a point in advance.
2) To send forward; transmit, especially (a letter or email) to a different address.

From fore "before, in front of," cognate with Pers. farâ, → pro-,+ → -ward.

Piš-su, from piš "forward; in front of; before;" Mid.Pers. pêš, + su, → direction.

forward scattering
  پراکنش ِ پیش-سو   
parâkaneš-e piš-su

Fr.: diffusion en avant   

Scattering in which photons emerge from the → scattering medium travelling predominantly in the same direction as they entered. The → halos around the Sun and Moon in wet weather are caused by forward scattering by water droplets in the Earth's atmosphere. → backscattering.

forward; → scattering.

forward seismic modeling
  مدل‌سازی ِ لرزه‌ای ِ پیش-سو   
modelsâzi-ye larze-yi-ye piš-su


1) Geology: The process whereby a geologic section (subsurface model of one-, two-, or three dimensions) is transformed into a synthetic seismogram (synthetic seismic record).
2) In → asteroseismology, a model that takes the physical properties of a star as input parameters and predicts the star's oscillations. Then, by finding parameters that yield oscillation frequencies (ωnlm) close to those observed, one can infer the properties of the observed star. The quantum numbers n, l, and m must be identified before any meaningful comparison between seismic data and model predictions can be made. That mode identification requires a physical interpretation of the measured frequencies.

forward; → seismic; → modeling.

forward shock
  تش ِ پیش-سو   
toš-e piš-su

Fr.: choc en avant   

A highly → supersonic → shock wave created in a → supernova remnant as the expanding stellar ejecta runs into the → interstellar medium (ISM). This forward shock wave produces sudden, large changes in pressure and temperature behind the shock wave. The forward shock wave also accelerates electrons and other charged particles to extremely high energies. The forward shock front has a velocity of 104 km s-1 and can heat the shocked gas to temperatures ~ 109 K. While the forward shock continues to expand into the ISM, it creates a → reverse shock that travels back into the freely expanding → supernova ejecta.

forward; → shock.

sangvâré (#)

Fr.: fossile   

A relic, remnant, or representation of an organism that existed in a past geological age.

From Fr. fossile, from L. fossilis "dug up," from fossus, p.p. of fodere "to dig."

Sangâré literally "resembling stone," from sang, → stone, + -vâré, from -vâr, → -oid.

fossil magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ سنگواره، ~ ~ سنگواره‌ای   
meydân-e meqnâtisi-ye sangvâré, ~ ~ sangvâre-yi

Fr.: champ magnétique fossile   

In a physical system, the → magnetic field belonging to an earlier magnetic process or event. A fossil magnetic field may be a vanished one or exist in relic forms. As an example, the solar magnetic field, which was present during the formation of the Sun, has disappeared over the last 4.6 billions years.

fossil;→ magnetic; → field;

Foucault current
  جریان ِ فوکو   
jarayân-e Foucault (#)

Fr.: courant de Foucault   

Same as → eddy current.

Foucault; → current.

Foucault knife-edge test
  آزمون ِ کارد ِ فوکو   
âzmun-e kârd-e Foucault

Fr.: contrôle par foucaultage   

A method used to test the → image quality of → mirrors and → lenses. The test is performed by moving a knife edge laterally into the → image of a small → point source. The → eye, or a → camera, is placed immediately behind the knife edge, and the → exit pupil of the system is observed.

Named after the French physicist Léon Foucault (1819-1868), who invented the method; → knife; → edge; → test.

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