fast radio burst (FRB)
belk-e râdioyi-ye tond
Fr.: sursaut radio rapide, impulsion ~ ~
A bright → burst of → radio emission lasting only a few milliseconds, and thought to be of → extragalactic origin. The first ever detected such burst, called the → Lorimer burst, was in 2007. It lasted only 5 milliseconds, but the single radio → pulse was dispersed over a wide range of frequencies (→ dispersion measure). This suggested a → cosmic origin for the burst, because the radiation must have passed through very distant → intergalactic clouds to be so highly dispersed. The second FRB was detected in 2012 in archival data from the Parkes Radio Telescope, the same telescope through which the original burst was seen. No temporally coincident → X-ray or → gamma ray signature was identified in association with the bursts. Most recent results suggest FRBs as a new population of explosive events at cosmological distances of up to 3 → giga → parsecs, that is → redshifts of 0.5 to 1. While physical interpretations for this phenomenon remain speculative, they are thought to involve highly → compact objects, such as → neutron stars. See also → blitzar.
1) To attach firmly or securely in place; fix securely to something else.
From M.E. fastenen, from O.E. fæstnian; cognate with O.Fris. festnia "to make firm, bind fast," O.Sax. fastnon, O.H.G. fastnion, O.N. fastna "to pledge, betroth."
Darizidan, from Proto-Ir. *darz- "to attach, fasten;" cf. Av. darəz- "to attach;" Mid.Pers. handarz "advice, order, command," drz- "to fasten;" Mod.Pers. andarz "advice; testament," darzan "needle," darzi "tailor," razé (with elimination of the initial phoneme) "a ring or staple used to fasten a door," padarzé "a wrapper in which clothes are folded up;" cf. Skt. drah- "to fix, make firm;" Gk. drassomai "I take hold of, grasp;" Russ. deržat' "to hold, keep" (Cheung 2007).
A male → parent.
M.E. fader, from O.E. fæder "father, male ancestor;" cf. O.S. fadar, Du. vader, O.N. faðir, O.H.G. fater, Ger. Vater; PIE *pəter-; cognate with Pers. pedar, as below.
Pedar, from Mid.Pers. pidar, variant pid "father;" O.Pers. pitā- "father;" Av. patar-; cf. Skt. pitár-; Gk. pater; L. pater (Fr. père, Sp. padre).
Geology: A fracture in the Earth's crust along which the adjacent rock surfaces have been displaced relative to each other. Movement along the fault can cause → earthquakes or, in the process of mountain-building, can release underlying → magma and permit it to rise to the surface as a volcanic eruption.
M.E. faute "deficiency," from O.Fr. faute "opening, gap; failure, flaw; lack," from V.L. *fallita "a shortcoming, falling," from L. falsus "deceptive, feigned, spurious," p.p. of fallere "to deceive, be wrong."
Gosalé, noun from gosalidan "to break; to snap asunder," ultimately from Proto-Iranian *visar-, from *vi- "apart" + *sar- "to break;" cf. Av. sairi- "fragment," asarəta- "not broken;" Skt. sar- "to break, tear apart," śūrtá- "smashed," aśīrtá- "unharmed;" Gk. keraizo "to tear, destroy," akeraios "unharmed;" PIE base *ker- "to hurt, harm."
Fr.: surface de faille
Geology: The surface of a fracture along which dislocation of adjacent rocks has taken place.
Fr.: formation de failles
The geological process leading to the formation of → faults.
Verbal noun, → fault.
One of light appendages that grow from a bird's skin and form its covering.
M.E., from O.E. fether; akin to Du. veder, Ger. Feder, O.N. fioþr, Sw. fjäder, from PIE root *pet- "to rush, to fly."
Parr "feather," variant bâl "wing," Mid.Pers. parr "feather, wing," bâl; Av. parəna- "feather," Skt. parnam, cf. O.H.G. farn "fern," PIE pornom "feather."
From O.Fr. faiture "fashion, shape, form," from L. facura "a formation," from facere "to make, do, perform" (cf. Fr. faire, Sp. hacer), from PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do" (cf. Mod.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives; puts;" Skt. dadáti "puts, places;" Hitt. dai- "to place;" Gk. tithenai "to put, set, place;" Lith. deti "to put;" Czech diti, Pol. dziac', Rus. det' "to hide," delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do").
Ârang "color; mode, form, manner," cf. Av. *iringa- "sign, mark" in haptôiringa- "with seven marks," from hapto- "seven," + iringa-; Mid.Pers. haptiring, Mod.Pers. haftowrang "the constellation of Great Bear;" cf. Skt. linga- "mark, token, sign."
Fr.: méthode de Feautrier
One of the most successful general methods for the numerical solution of the → radiative transfer equation. This method has been primarily used to study → radiative transfer in the → photospheres of stars.
P. Feautrier (1964), C.r. hebd. Séanc. Acad. Sci. Paris 258, 3198; → method.
qânun-e Fechner (#)
Fr.: loi de Fechner
See → Weber-Fechner law.
Biology: To impregnate, to fertilize.
L. fecundetus "made fruitful, fertilized," p.p. of fcundare, from fecundus "fruitful, fertile, productive," from L. root *fe-, corresponding to PIE *dhe(i)- "to suck, suckle;" cf. Skt. dhayati "sucks," dhayah "nourishing;" Gk. thele "mother's breast, nipple," thelys "female, fruitful;" Mid.Pers. dâyag "(wet-)nurse;" Mod.Pers. dâyé "(wet-)nurse;" Proto-Iranian *daH- "to suck, suckle;" O.C.S. dojiti "to suckle," dojilica "nurse;" Lith. dele "leech;" Goth. daddjan "to suckle;" O.H.G. tila "female breast."
Gošnidan, from gošn "male," Mid.Pers. gušn; cf. Av. varšni- "male;" Skt. vrsan-.
gošneš, gošngiri (#), bârvarsâzi (#)
Biology: The act or process of fecundating.
Relating to or characteristic of a unified body (e.g. a government) with constituent parts (states) that retain a measure of autonomy.
Hiyâvi, from hiyâvidan, → federate.
From L. foederatus "leagued together, allied," p.p. of foederare "to establish by treaty," from foedus "league, treaty, alliance," related to fides "faith."
Hiyâvidan, from Tabari hiyâ "together, with each other," probably related to Av. hi- "to chain, bind," hiθav- "association, assemblage," hinav- "bond, chain," hita- "fastened;" O.P. vištāspa- literally "with unbound horses;" Av. hitāspa-; Pers. gošudan "to open," → resolve; cf. Skt. sā-/say- "to bind, fasten, fetter." Coined on the model of Ger. Bund "federation, alliance, band," cognate with Pers. bastan "to bind," → absolute.
federated database system (FDBS)
râžmân-e pâygâh-e dâdehâ-ye hiyâvidé
Fr.: système de base de données fédéré
A composition of different databases which work in an integrated manner while preserving their autonomy.
1) The act of federating or uniting in a league.
Verbal noun of → federate.
Pertaining to or of the nature of a → federation.
He who, or that which, federates.
1) To give food to; supply with nourishment.
M.E. feden, from O.E. fedan "to nourish;" cf. O.S. fodjan, O.Fris. feda, Goth. fodjan "to feed."
Xorândan, transitive form of xordan "to eat, consume," Mid.Pers. xvardan "to eat, enjoy (food)," Av. xvar "to consume, eat;" Laki dialect hovârden "to eat;" Proto-Iranian *huar- "to consume, eat."
1) For any system that has an → input and
the return of a fraction of the output to the input for the next action.
Feedback process allows a system to regulate itself by monitoring its own
output. It is of prime importance to
the working of all regulatory mechanisms found in
living and non-living nature, as well as in social systems such
as education and economy.