An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 431
Fermi sea
  دریای ِ فرمی   
daryâ-ye Fermi

Fr.: mer de Fermi   

A large aggregate of single-state → fermions of lowest energy. When the temperature is lowered to absolute zero, all electrons in solids attempt to get into the lowest available energy level. However, electrons cannot all occupy the lowest energy, or ground state, in virtue of the → Pauli exclusion principle. They stack up in the lowest energy states, with two fermions in each state, one spin up and one spin down. Such assemblage of filled states is called the Fermi "sea," and this state of matter is called → degenerate. All states with energy less than the Fermi energy are filled, and all states above the Fermi energy are empty.

fermi; → sea.

Fermi-Dirac statistics
  آمار ِ فرمی-دیراک   
âmâr-e Fermi-Dirac (#)

Fr.: distribution Fermi-Dirac   

The statistical distribution of → fermions over the energy states for a system in → thermodynamic equilibrium. In other words, the probability that a given energy level be occupied by a fermion.

fermi, → Dirac function; → statistics.

Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ فرمی-پستا-اولام   
parâse-ye Fermi-Pasta-Ulam

Fr.: expérience Fermi-Pasta-Ulam   

A computer experiment that was aimed to study the → thermalization process of a → solid. In other words, the goal was to see whether there is an approximate → equipartition of energy in the system, which would mean that the motion is → chaotic. Using computer simulation, Fermi-Pasta-Ulam studied the behavior of a chain of 64 mass particles connected by → nonlinear springs. In fact, they were looking for a theoretical physics problem suitable for an investigation with one of the very first computers, the he MANIAC (Mathematical Analyzer, Numerical Integrator and Computer). They decided to study how a → crystal evolves toward → thermal equilibrium by simulating a chain of particles, linked by a quadratic interaction potential, but also by a weak nonlinear interaction. Fermi-Pasta-Ulam assumed that if the interaction in the chain were nonlinear, then an exchange of energy among the normal modes would occur, and this would bring forth the equipartition of energy, i.e. the thermalization. Contrary to expectations, the energy revealed no tendency toward equipartition. The system had a simple quasi-periodic behavior, and no → chaoticity was observed. This result, known as the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam paradox, shows that → nonlinearity is not enough to guarantee the equipartition of energy (see, e.g., Dauxois et al., 2005, Eur. J. Phys., 26, S3).

E. Fermi, J. Pasta, S. Ulam, 1955, Los Alamos report LA-1940; → problem.

fermion
  فرمیون   
fermion (#)

Fr.: fermion   

An elementary particle, such as → electron, → proton, or → neutron, having a half integral value of → spin. Fermions obey the → Pauli exclusion principle.

From Fermi → fermi + → -on.

ferric
  فریک   
ferrik

Fr.: ferrique   

Of or containing → iron, especially in the trivalent state. More specifically, iron with an → oxidation number of +3; also denoted iron(III) or Fe3+.

Ferric, from L. ferrum "iron," + → -ic.

ferric iron
  آهن ِ فریک   
âhan-e ferrik

Fr.: fer ferrique, fer trivalent   

Iron in a plus-3 → oxidation state. Ferric iron needs to share three electrons with an oxygen molecule to make the ion neutral.

ferric; → iron.

ferro-
  آهن-، فرو-   
âhan-, ferro-

Fr.: ferro-   

Indicating a property of → iron or the presence of iron.

Ferro-, variant ferri-, combining form of L. ferrum "iron."

Âhan-, → iron.

ferroelectric
  آهن‌برق‌مند   
âhanbarqmand

Fr.: ferroélectrique   

Characterized by the presence of a spontaneous → electric dipole while not exposed to an external electric field. → ferroelectricity.

ferro-; → electric.

ferroelectricity
  آهن‌برق‌مندی   
âhanbarqmandi

Fr.: ferroélectricité   

A property observed in certain materials characterized by the presence of a spontaneous electric polarization even in the absence of an external electric field. In the ferroelectric state the center of positive charge of the material does not coincide with the center of negative charge. This phenomenon is explained by spontaneous alignment of these permanent moments along the same direction. The term comes from the similarity with → ferromagnetism, but iron is not a ferroelectric. Ferroelectricity disappears above a critical temperature. Ferroelectric materials have been a fertile field for the study of → phase transitions.

ferro-; → electricity.

ferromagnet
  آهن‌مغنات   
âhanmeqnât

Fr.: ferro-aimant   

A ferroamagnetic substance, which possesses → ferromagnetism.

ferro-; → magnet.

ferromagnetic
  آهن‌مغناتی   
âhanmeqnâti

Fr.: ferromagnétique   

Relative to or characterized by → ferromagnetism.

ferro-; → magnetic.

ferromagnetism
  آهن‌مغنات‌مندی   
âhanmegnâtmandi

Fr.: ferromagnétisme   

A property of certain substances which are enormously more magnetic than any other known substance. Ferromagnetic substances, such as the chemical elements iron, nickel, cobalt, some of the rare earths, and ceratin alloys, achieve maximum → magnetization at relatively low magnetic field strengths. Their large → magnetic permeabilityies (greater than unity) vary with the strength of the applied field. When the temperature of a ferromagnet is increased the property vanishes gradually due to randomizing effects of thermal agitation. Beyond a definite temperature for each substance ( → Curie temperature) it ceases to behave as a ferromagnet and becomes a → paramagnet. Ferromagnetism is due to the alignment of the → magnetic moments of uncompensated electrons in the crystal lattice. Under the influence of an external magnetizing field, all of the uncompensated electrons line up with their → spins in the direction of the field. In contrast with paramagnetic substances, in which spins interact only with an external magnetic field, in ferromagnets the spins interact with each others, each of them trying to align the others in its own direction. This coupling gives rise to a spontaneous alignment of the moments over macroscopic regions called domains. The domains undergo further alignment when the substance is subjected to an applied field. Ferromagnets retain their magnetisation even when the external magnetic field has been removed. See also → antiferromagnetism ; → diamagnetism; → magnetism.

ferro-; → magnetism.

ferrous
  فرور   
fervar

Fr.: ferreux   

Of or containing → iron, especially in the bivalent state. More specifically, iron with → oxidation number of +2, denoted iron(II) or Fe2+.

From L. ferrum "iron," + -ous a suffix forming adjectives that have the general sense "possessing, full of" a given quality.

Fervar, from fer, loan from Fr., + -var adj. suffix.

ferrous iron
  آهن ِ فرور   
âhan-e fervar

Fr.: fer ferreux, fer bivalent   

Iron in a plus-2 → oxidation state.

ferrous; → iron.

fertile
  بارور   
bârvar (#)

Fr.: fertile   

Physics: (of nuclear material) Able to become → fissile by → neutron capture.

M.E., from M.Fr. fertil, from L. fertilis "bearing in abundance, fruitful, productive," from ferre "to bear," from PIE root *bher- "to carry," also "to bear children," cognate with Pers. bordan "to carry, bear," → refer.

Bârvar, literally "fruitful," from bâr "fruit; flower; load; charge" + possession suffix -var, related to bordan "to bear, carry," as above.

fertile isotope
  ایزوتوپ ِ بارور   
izotop-e bârvar

Fr.: isotope fertile   

An → isotope not itself → fissile but that is converted into a fissile isotope, either directly or after a short → decay process following absorption of a → neutron. Example: U-238 can capture a neutron to give U-239. U-239 then decays to Np-239 which in turn decays to fissile Pu-239. The most important fertile isotope is U-238. This is by far the most abundant isotope of natural uranium, making up 99.28%. The important transformation chain is: 92U238 + 0n193Np239 + β- (23.5 minutes) → 94Pu239 + β- (2.36 days).

fertile; → isotope .

Feynman diagram
  نمودار ِ فاینمن   
nemudâr-e Feynman

Fr.: diagramme de Feynman   

A schematic representation, in quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics, of the way elementary particles like electrons and protons interact with each other by exchanging photons. Use of Feynman diagrams can greatly reduce the amount of computation involved in calculating a rate or cross section of a physical process.

After the American physicist Richard P. Feynman (1918-1988), Nobel prize 1965; → diagram.

FHB star
  ستاره‌ی ِ FHB   
setâre-ye FHB

Fr.: étoile FHB   

Same as → field horizontal branch star.

field; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

fiber
  فیبر   
fibr (#)

Fr.: fibre   

optical fiber.

From Fr. fibre, from O.Fr. fibre, from L. fibra "a fiber, filament," of uncertain origin, perhaps related to L. filum "thread."

Fibr, loan from Fr., as above.

Fibonacci number
  عدد ِ فیبوناچی   
'adad-e Fibonacci

Fr.: nombre de Fobonacci   

One of the numbers in the → Fibonacci sequence.

Fibonacci sequence; → number.

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