giant molecular cloud (GMC)
abr-e molekuli-ye qulpeykar (#)
Fr.: nuage moléculaire géant
A massive complex of → interstellar gas and → dust, consisting mostly of → molecular hydrogen, that typically stretches over 150 light-years and contains several hundred thousand → solar masses. Giant molecular clouds are the principal sites of star formation. → molecular cloud.
sayyâre-ye qulpeykar (#)
Fr.: planète géante
setâre-ye qulpeykar (#)
Fr.: étoile géante
kuž, kužmâh (#)
An adjective applied to the phase of the Moon (or a planet) when it is more than half full, but less than entirely full.
From L.L. gibbous "hunchbacked," from L. gibbus "hump, hunch;" cf. Mod.Pers. kaž "crooked, bent, being aside;" Skt. kubja- "hump-backed, crooked;" Pali kujja- "bent;" Lith. kupra "hump."
Kuž "humped," Mid.Pers. kôf "hill, mountain; hump" (Mod.Pers. kuh, "mountain"), kôfik "humpbacked," O.Pers. kaufa-, Av. kaofa- "mountain;" mâh, → moon.
Gibbs canonical distribution
vâbâžeš-e hanjârvâr-e Gibbs
Fr.: distribution canonique de Gibbs
The probability distribution of the various possible states of a certain → quasi-closed subsystem.
Gibbs free energy
kâruž-e âzâd-e Gibbs
Fr.: énergie libre de Gibbs
The total energy needed to create a thermodynamic system minus the energy provided the environment. It is defined by G = U + PV -TS, where U is the → internal energy, T the → absolute temperature, S the → entropy, P the → pressure, and V is the final → volume. Same as the → Gibbs function and → thermodynamic potential.
Fr.: fonction de Gibbs
Same as → Gibbs free energy.
Named after Josiah Willard Gibbs (1839-1903), an American physicist who played an important part in the foundation of analytical thermodynamics; → function.
A prefix that is used to represent 109 in the SI system.
From Gk. gigas, → giant.
A unit of → frequency, equal to 106 Hz.
Fr.: monture à la Cardan, cardan
1) A support component of a gyroscope, which allows the axis to move freely.
Gimbal, alteration of gemel "twin," from M.E., gemelles, from O.Fr. gemeles (Fr. jumeau, jumelle), from L. gemellus, diminutive of geminus "twin;" cf. Pers. Kermâni dialect jomoli "twin;" → Gemini.
Doqâb, from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do; Av. dva-; cf. Skt. dvi-; Gk. duo; L. duo; O.E. twa; Ger. zwei) + qâb "frame," from Turkish.
Fr.: Gl 229B
The prototype of → T dwarfs discovered by Nakajima et al. (1995, Nature 378, 463). This → brown dwarf lies 21.8 → light-years away and orbits a primary star of type M1 V every about 40 years. It has a temperature of less than 1,200 K, and a mass approximately 20-50 times that of Jupiter. Its luminosity is about 2 x 10 -6 that of the Sun.
Gl, referring to the → Gliese catalogue.
An extended mass of ice formed from snow falling and accumulating over the years and moving very slowly, either descending from high mountains, as in valley glaciers, or moving outward from centers of accumulation, as in continental glaciers (Dictionary.com).
From Fr. glacier, from O.Fr. glace "ice," from V.L. glacia, from L. glacies "ice," probably from PIE root *gel-, → cold.
Yaxzâr, from yax, → ice, + -zâr suffix denoting profusion and abundance, as in šurezâr "infertile, salty ground; nitrous earth," xoškzâr "arid land," kârzâr "a field of battle; combat," marqzâr "a place abounding with the grass," and so forth.
Fr.: lumière éblouissante
1) A very harsh, bright, dazzling light.
M.E. glaren; cognate with M.Du., M.L.G. glaren; akin to glass.
Xirtâv, literally "dazzling light," from xir, from xiré konandé, "dazzling," from xiré "much, many; obstinate; perverse; unwilling;" + tâv, variant tâb, tâbidan "to shine," → luminous.
A noncrystalline, inorganic mixture of various metallic oxides fused by heating with glassifiers such as silica, or boric or phosphoric oxides.
From O.E. glæs, from W.Gmc. *glasam (M.Du. glas, Ger. Glas), from PIE base *gel-/*ghel- "to shine, glitter."
Šišé "glass;" Mid.Pers. šišag.
Fr.: disque de verre
A mass of glass ready to be shaped into a telescope mirror. Same as → glass disk.
→ glass; blank, from O.Fr. blanc "white, shining," from Frank. *blank "white, gleaming," of W.Gmc. origin (cf. O.E. blanca "white horse"), from P.Gmc. *blangkaz, from PIE *bhleg- "to shine."
Fr.: disque de verre
Same as glass blank.
Fr.: filtre de verre
Fr.: verglas, givre
A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapor. Also called glaze ice, verglas, and (especially British) glazed frost.
Glaze, from → glass.
Hasar "ice," probably related to Av. isu- "icy, chilly," aexa- "ice, frost," Mod.Pers. yax "ice;" cf. O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; Du. ijs, Ger. Eis, E. ice.
Fr.: catalogue de Gliese
A compilation of all known stars within the solar neighborhood with accurately known distances. The first version, Catalogue of Nearby Stars, published in 1957, contained nearly 1000 stars located within 20 pc of Earth, listing their known properties. Gliese published an updated version in 1969, extending the range out to 22 pc. He published the second edition of the catalog in 1979 in collaboration with Hartmut Jahreiss. The combined catalog is now commonly referred to as the Gliese-Jahreiss catalog.
Wilhelm Gliese (1915-1993), a German astronomer who worked at the Heidelberg observatory; → catalog.
A defect or malfunction in a machine or plan.
Glitch, from Yiddish glitsh "slippery area;" cf. glitshn, Ger. glitschen "to slip, slide."
Geles, from Lori gelese "to fall down, to slide."