jahâni, sarâsari, hargâni
Global Positioning System (GPS)
râžmân-e nehešdâd-e jahâni
Fr.: système de positionnement par satellites
A coordinate positioning tool, using a combination of satellites that can rapidly and accurately determine the → latitude, → longitude, and the → altitude of a point on or above the Earth's surface. The GPS is based on a constellation of 24 Earth-orbiting satellites at an altitude of about 26,000 km. The system is a direct application of the thories of → special relativity and → general relativity.
Fr.: réchauffement climatique
A spherical body; sphere.
M.E. globe, from M.Fr. globe, from L. globus "round body, ball, sphere," cognate with Pers. guy, see below.
Guy "ball, sphere," variants golulé, gullé, goruk, gulu, gudé; cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour," Pali gula- "ball," Gk. gloutos "rump," L. glomus "ball," globus "globe," Ger. Kugel, E. clot; PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."
xuše-ye guysân (#)
Fr.: amas globulaire
A spherical aggregate of stars made up of thousands to a few million stars which is an orbiting satellite of a galaxy. There are over 150 globular clusters orbiting our galaxy. Globular clusters are gravitationally → bound systems, highly concentrated to the center (up to a few 103 stars per cubic → light-years), with a volume ranging from a few dozen up to more than 300 light-years in diameter. They are generally old and → metal-poor and are among the first objects to be formed in a galaxy. There is also strong evidence that they form in major galaxy interactions and → mergers. The stars in a globular cluster are thought to have a common origin and thus a single age and → chemical abundance; with some exceptions such as → Omega Centauri and NGC 2808, which exhibit multiple populations. The presence of various sub-populations within a globular cluster is interpreted as indicating distinct epochs of mass → accretion and/or major → star formation. The Milky Way hosts about 200 globular clusters. They are spherically distributed about the → Galactic Center up to a radius of 350 light-years, with a maximum concentration toward the Galactic center. All but the smallest → dwarf galaxies possess globular clusters. Some galaxies, e.g. M87, contain several thousands of them. There are, however, important differences. While all the globular clusters in our Galaxy and in → M31 are old (ages of about 10 billion years, at least), there are galaxies, such as the two → Magellanic Clouds and → M33, that host much younger globular clusters (ages of a few billion years, or less).
Xušé, → cluster; guysân "shaped like a globe," from guy, → globe + -sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career").
Generally, a small spherical mass, especially a small drop of liquid.
Guycé, fro guy, → globe, + -cé diminutive suffix, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak.
A colored aureole that is visible around the shadow of an observer's head, appearing on top of a cloud situated below the observer. A glory is caused by the same optics as a rainbow plus diffraction. → heiligenschein.
From O.Fr. glorie, from L. gloria "great praise or honor," of uncertain origin.
Šokuh, from Mid.Pers. škôh "magnificience, majesty, dignity; fear."
From Gk. glottis "mouth of the windpipe," from glotta, Attic dialect variant of glossa "tongue."
1) foruz, foruq, foruzeš; 2) foruzidan
Fr.: 1) rougoiement, incandescence, éclat; 2) rougeoyer, s'embraser, être incandescent, luire rouge
1a) A light emitted by or as if by a substance heated to luminosity; incandescence.
1b) Brightness of color.
M.E. glowen, from O.E. glowan "to shine as if red-hot," ultimately from PIE *ghlo-.
Foruz-, foruzidan, afruxtan "to light, kindle;" related to foruq "light, brightness" (Mid.Pers. payrog "light, brightness"); rôšan "light; bright, luminous;" ruz "day;" Mid.Pers. rošn light; bright," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-; Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining, roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light," also lumen "light, window," luna "Moon;" E. light; Ger. Licht; Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness."
From glue (O.Fr. glu, from L.L. glus "glue," from L. gluten "glue") + → -on.
The organic compound with the formula HOCH2-CHO. It is the simplest → sugar and the first intermediate product in the formose reaction that begins with formaldehyde (H2CO) and leads to the (catalyzed) formation of sugars and ultimately ribose, the backbone of RNA, under early Earth conditions. The presence of glycolaldehyde is therefore an important indication that the processes leading to biologically relevant molecules are taking place. However, the mechanism responsible for its formation in space is still unclear. Glycolaldehyde has been detected toward the → Galactic Center cloud Sgr B2, in the high-mass → hot molecular core G31.41+0.31, and more recently in the gas surrounding a young binary star with similar mass to the Sun (IRAS 16293-2422). See Jorgensen et al. 2012, astro-ph/1208.5498, and references therein.
From glycol, from glyc(erin) + (alcoh)ol + → aldehyde.
1) A rod oriented in such a way that its shadow, cast by the Sun's
rays, shows the hours on a → sundial; a style.
From L. gnomon, from Gk. gnomon "carpenter's square, rule; indicator," literally "one who discerns," from gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânistan "to know;" Mod.Pers. šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know," dânestan "to know;" Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."
Bâhu "stick, staff; arm (from the elbow to the shoulder)," related to bâzu "arm," Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm," also "the shadow of the gnomon on a sundial; the bar of a chariot pole;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm."
Fr.: projection gnomonique
The projection of a spherical surface onto a plane through a point. A gnomonic → map projection displays all great circles as straight lines, and therefore indicates the shortest path between two points. Small circles are projected as conic sections.
1) The Being perfect in power, wisdom, and goodness who is worshipped
as creator and ruler of the Universe.
M.E. from O.E. akin to O.H.G. got, Ger. Gott, O.N. guð, Goth. guþ, from PIE *gheuH- "to call upon;" cf. Av. zu- "to call, invoke;" O.Pers. (upa)zu- "to proclaim;" Skt. hu-, variant hve- "to call upon, invoke," huta- "invoked," an epithet of Indra, from root *gheu(e)- "to call, invoke."
Xodâ, xodây "god, lord, master;" Mid.Pers. xwadây "king, master;" Av. xvadāta- "autonomous" (darego.xvadāta- "highly autonomous"), from xva-, → self- + dā- "to give, grant, yield" (Pers. dâdan, → datum); cf. Skt. svadhā- "inherent power, habitual power, self-placed," from sva- "self," + dhā- "to place, fix, maintain"
Fr.: méthode de Godunov
Suggested by Sergei K. Godunov (1929-) in 1959, Math. Sbornik, 47, 271, translated 1969, US Joint Publ. Res. Service, JPRS 7226; → method.
talâ (#), zarr (#)
A yellow, ductile → metal which occurs naturally in veins and alluvial deposits associated with quartz or pyrite; symbol Au (L. aurum "shining dawn"). → Atomic number 79; → atomic weight 196.9665; → melting point 1,064.43 °C; → boiling point 2,808 °C; → specific gravity 19.32 at 20 °C.
M.E., from O.E. gold, from P.Gmc. *gulth- (cf. O.H.G. gold, Ger. Gold, Du. goud, Dan. guld, Goth. gulþ), from PIE base *ghel-/*ghol- "yellow, green;" cf. Mod.Pers. zarr "gold," see below.
Talâ "gold," variants tala, tali.
Fr.: conjecture de Goldbach
Every number greater than 2 is the sum of two → prime numbers. Goldbach's number remains one of the most famous unsolved mathematical problems of today.
Named after the German mathematician Christian Goldbach (1690-1764); → conjecture.
adad-e zarrin (#)
Fr.: nombre d'or
1) The number giving the position of any year in the lunar or
→ Metonic cycle of about 19 years.
Each year has a golden number between 1 and 19. It is found by adding
1 to the given year and dividing by 19; the remainder in the division
is the golden number. If there is no remainder the golden number
is 19 (e.g., the golden number of 2007 is 13).
Fr.: nombre d'or
If a line segment is divided into a larger subsegment (a) and a smaller subsegment (b), when the larger subsegment is related to the smaller exactly as the whole segment is related to the larger segment, i.e. a/b = (a + b)/a. The golden ratio, a/b is usually represented by the Greek letter φ. It is also known as the divine ratio, the golden mean, the → golden number, and the golden section. Its numerical value, given by the positive solution of the equation φ2 - φ - 1 = 0, is approximately 1.618033989. The golden ratio is closely related to the → Fibonacci sequence.
Fr.: anneau ténu
An extremely faint and broad ring (in fact two rings) of tiny particles around → Jupiter lying just outside the main ring.
Gossamer "a film of cobwebs floating in air in calm clear weather; an extremely delicate variety of gauze, used esp. for veils," from M.E. gossomer, from gos "goose" + somer "summer." Possibly first used as name for late, mild autumn, a time when goose was a favorite dish, then transferred to the cobwebs frequent at that time of year; → ring.
Halqé, → ring; tanté "cobweb, spider's web," from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."