Fr.: verglas, givre
A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapor. Also called glaze ice, verglas, and (especially British) glazed frost.
Glaze, from → glass.
Hasar "ice," probably related to Av. isu- "icy, chilly," aexa- "ice, frost," Mod.Pers. yax "ice;" cf. O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; Du. ijs, Ger. Eis, E. ice.
Fr.: catalogue de Gliese
A compilation of all known stars within the solar neighborhood with accurately known distances. The first version, Catalogue of Nearby Stars, published in 1957, contained nearly 1000 stars located within 20 pc of Earth, listing their known properties. Gliese published an updated version in 1969, extending the range out to 22 pc. He published the second edition of the catalog in 1979 in collaboration with Hartmut Jahreiss. The combined catalog is now commonly referred to as the Gliese-Jahreiss catalog.
Wilhelm Gliese (1915-1993), a German astronomer who worked at the Heidelberg observatory; → catalog.
A defect or malfunction in a machine or plan.
Glitch, from Yiddish glitsh "slippery area;" cf. glitshn, Ger. glitschen "to slip, slide."
Geles, from Lori gelese "to fall down, to slide."
jahâni, sarâsari, hargâni
Global Positioning System (GPS)
râžmân-e nehešdâd-e jahâni
Fr.: système de positionnement par satellites
A coordinate positioning tool, using a combination of satellites that can rapidly and accurately determine the → latitude, → longitude, and the → altitude of a point on or above the Earth's surface. The GPS is based on a constellation of 24 Earth-orbiting satellites at an altitude of about 26,000 km. The system is a direct application of the thories of → special relativity and → general relativity.
Fr.: réchauffement climatique
A spherical body; sphere.
M.E. globe, from M.Fr. globe, from L. globus "round body, ball, sphere," cognate with Pers. guy, see below.
Guy "ball, sphere," variants golulé, gullé, goruk, gulu, gudé; cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour," Pali gula- "ball," Gk. gloutos "rump," L. glomus "ball," globus "globe," Ger. Kugel, E. clot; PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."
xuše-ye guysân (#)
Fr.: amas globulaire
A spherical aggregate of stars made up of thousands to a few million stars which is an orbiting satellite of a galaxy. There are over 150 globular clusters orbiting our galaxy. Globular clusters are gravitationally → bound systems, highly concentrated to the center (up to a few 103 stars per cubic → light-years), with a volume ranging from a few dozen up to more than 300 light-years in diameter. They are generally old and → metal-poor and are among the first objects to be formed in a galaxy. There is also strong evidence that they form in major galaxy interactions and → mergers. The stars in a globular cluster are thought to have a common origin and thus a single age and → chemical abundance; with some exceptions such as → Omega Centauri and NGC 2808, which exhibit multiple populations. The presence of various sub-populations within a globular cluster is interpreted as indicating distinct epochs of mass → accretion and/or major → star formation. The Milky Way hosts about 200 globular clusters. They are spherically distributed about the → Galactic Center up to a radius of 350 light-years, with a maximum concentration toward the Galactic center. All but the smallest → dwarf galaxies possess globular clusters. Some galaxies, e.g. M87, contain several thousands of them. There are, however, important differences. While all the globular clusters in our Galaxy and in → M31 are old (ages of about 10 billion years, at least), there are galaxies, such as the two → Magellanic Clouds and → M33, that host much younger globular clusters (ages of a few billion years, or less).
Xušé, → cluster; guysân "shaped like a globe," from guy, → globe + -sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career").
Generally, a small spherical mass, especially a small drop of liquid.
Guycé, fro guy, → globe, + -cé diminutive suffix, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak.
A colored aureole that is visible around the shadow of an observer's head, appearing on top of a cloud situated below the observer. A glory is caused by the same optics as a rainbow plus diffraction. → heiligenschein.
From O.Fr. glorie, from L. gloria "great praise or honor," of uncertain origin.
Šokuh, from Mid.Pers. škôh "magnificience, majesty, dignity; fear."
From Gk. glottis "mouth of the windpipe," from glotta, Attic dialect variant of glossa "tongue."
1) foruz, foruq, foruzeš; 2) foruzidan
Fr.: 1) rougoiement, incandescence, éclat; 2) rougeoyer, s'embraser, être incandescent, luire rouge
1a) A light emitted by or as if by a substance heated to luminosity; incandescence.
1b) Brightness of color.
M.E. glowen, from O.E. glowan "to shine as if red-hot," ultimately from PIE *ghlo-.
Foruz-, foruzidan, afruxtan "to light, kindle;" related to foruq "light, brightness" (Mid.Pers. payrog "light, brightness"); rôšan "light; bright, luminous;" ruz "day;" Mid.Pers. rošn light; bright," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-; Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining, roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light," also lumen "light, window," luna "Moon;" E. light; Ger. Licht; Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness."
From glue (O.Fr. glu, from L.L. glus "glue," from L. gluten "glue") + → -on.
The organic compound with the formula HOCH2-CHO. It is the simplest → sugar and the first intermediate product in the formose reaction that begins with formaldehyde (H2CO) and leads to the (catalyzed) formation of sugars and ultimately ribose, the backbone of RNA, under early Earth conditions. The presence of glycolaldehyde is therefore an important indication that the processes leading to biologically relevant molecules are taking place. However, the mechanism responsible for its formation in space is still unclear. Glycolaldehyde has been detected toward the → Galactic Center cloud Sgr B2, in the high-mass → hot molecular core G31.41+0.31, and more recently in the gas surrounding a young binary star with similar mass to the Sun (IRAS 16293-2422). See Jorgensen et al. 2012, astro-ph/1208.5498, and references therein.
From glycol, from glyc(erin) + (alcoh)ol + → aldehyde.
1) A rod oriented in such a way that its shadow, cast by the Sun's
rays, shows the hours on a → sundial; a style.
From L. gnomon, from Gk. gnomon "carpenter's square, rule; indicator," literally "one who discerns," from gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânistan "to know;" Mod.Pers. šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know," dânestan "to know;" Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."
Bâhu "stick, staff; arm (from the elbow to the shoulder)," related to bâzu "arm," Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm," also "the shadow of the gnomon on a sundial; the bar of a chariot pole;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm."
Fr.: projection gnomonique
The projection of a spherical surface onto a plane through a point. A gnomonic → map projection displays all great circles as straight lines, and therefore indicates the shortest path between two points. Small circles are projected as conic sections.
1) The Being perfect in power, wisdom, and goodness who is worshipped
as creator and ruler of the Universe.
M.E. from O.E. akin to O.H.G. got, Ger. Gott, O.N. guð, Goth. guþ, from PIE *gheuH- "to call upon;" cf. Av. zu- "to call, invoke;" O.Pers. (upa)zu- "to proclaim;" Skt. hu-, variant hve- "to call upon, invoke," huta- "invoked," an epithet of Indra, from root *gheu(e)- "to call, invoke."
Xodâ, xodây "god, lord, master;" Mid.Pers. xwadây "king, master;" Av. xvadāta- "autonomous" (darego.xvadāta- "highly autonomous"), from xva-, → self- + dā- "to give, grant, yield" (Pers. dâdan, → datum); cf. Skt. svadhā- "inherent power, habitual power, self-placed," from sva- "self," + dhā- "to place, fix, maintain"
Fr.: méthode de Godunov
Suggested by Sergei K. Godunov (1929-) in 1959, Math. Sbornik, 47, 271, translated 1969, US Joint Publ. Res. Service, JPRS 7226; → method.
talâ (#), zarr (#)
A yellow, ductile → metal which occurs naturally in veins and alluvial deposits associated with quartz or pyrite; symbol Au (L. aurum "shining dawn"). → Atomic number 79; → atomic weight 196.9665; → melting point 1,064.43 °C; → boiling point 2,808 °C; → specific gravity 19.32 at 20 °C.
M.E., from O.E. gold, from P.Gmc. *gulth- (cf. O.H.G. gold, Ger. Gold, Du. goud, Dan. guld, Goth. gulþ), from PIE base *ghel-/*ghol- "yellow, green;" cf. Mod.Pers. zarr "gold," see below.
Talâ "gold," variants tala, tali.
Fr.: conjecture de Goldbach
Every number greater than 2 is the sum of two → prime numbers. Goldbach's number remains one of the most famous unsolved mathematical problems of today.
Named after the German mathematician Christian Goldbach (1690-1764); → conjecture.