An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 399
glaze
  هَسَر   
hasar (#)

Fr.: verglas, givre   

A coating of ice, generally clear and smooth, formed on exposed objects by the freezing of a film of supercooled water deposited by rain, drizzle, fog, or possibly condensed from supercooled water vapor. Also called glaze ice, verglas, and (especially British) glazed frost.

Glaze, from → glass.

Hasar "ice," probably related to Av. isu- "icy, chilly," aexa- "ice, frost," Mod.Pers. yax "ice;" cf. O.E. is "ice," from P.Gmc. *isa-; Du. ijs, Ger. Eis, E. ice.

Gliese Catalogue
  کاتالوگ ِ گلیزه   
kâtâlog-e Gliese

Fr.: catalogue de Gliese   

A compilation of all known stars within the solar neighborhood with accurately known distances. The first version, Catalogue of Nearby Stars, published in 1957, contained nearly 1000 stars located within 20 pc of Earth, listing their known properties. Gliese published an updated version in 1969, extending the range out to 22 pc. He published the second edition of the catalog in 1979 in collaboration with Hartmut Jahreiss. The combined catalog is now commonly referred to as the Gliese-Jahreiss catalog.

Wilhelm Gliese (1915-1993), a German astronomer who worked at the Heidelberg observatory; → catalog.

glitch
  گِلِس   
geles

Fr.:   

A defect or malfunction in a machine or plan.
A brief or sudden interruption or surge in voltage in an electric circuit.
A sudden change in the rotation period of a pulsar.

Glitch, from Yiddish glitsh "slippery area;" cf. glitshn, Ger. glitschen "to slip, slide."

Geles, from Lori gelese "to fall down, to slide."

global
  جهانی، سراسری، هرگانی   
jahâni, sarâsari, hargâni

Fr.: global   

Pertaining to the whole → world; worldwide; → universal.

globe; → -al.

universal.

Global Positioning System (GPS)
  راژمان ِ نهش‌داد ِ جهانی   
râžmân-e nehešdâd-e jahâni

Fr.: système de positionnement par satellites   

A coordinate positioning tool, using a combination of satellites that can rapidly and accurately determine the → latitude, → longitude, and the → altitude of a point on or above the Earth's surface. The GPS is based on a constellation of 24 Earth-orbiting satellites at an altitude of about 26,000 km. The system is a direct application of the thories of → special relativity and → general relativity.

global; → positioning; → system.

global warming
  گرمایش ِ جهانی   
garmâyeš-e jahâni

Fr.: réchauffement climatique   

An increase in the average → temperature of the Earth's → atmosphere that brings about climatic changes.

global; → warming.

globe
  گوی   
guy (#)

Fr.: globe   

A spherical body; sphere.
The planet Earth (usually preceded by the). A sphere on which is depicted a map of the Earth (terrestrial globe) or of the heavens (celestial globe).

M.E. globe, from M.Fr. globe, from L. globus "round body, ball, sphere," cognate with Pers. guy, see below.

Guy "ball, sphere," variants golulé, gullé, goruk, gulu, gudé; cf. Skt. guda- "ball, mouthful, lump, tumour," Pali gula- "ball," Gk. gloutos "rump," L. glomus "ball," globus "globe," Ger. Kugel, E. clot; PIE *gel- "to make into a ball."

globular cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ گوی‌سان   
xuše-ye guysân (#)

Fr.: amas globulaire   

A spherical aggregate of stars made up of thousands to a few million stars which is an orbiting satellite of a galaxy. There are over 150 globular clusters orbiting our galaxy. Globular clusters are gravitationally → bound systems, highly concentrated to the center (up to a few 103 stars per cubic → light-years), with a volume ranging from a few dozen up to more than 300 light-years in diameter. They are generally old and → metal-poor and are among the first objects to be formed in a galaxy. There is also strong evidence that they form in major galaxy interactions and → mergers. The stars in a globular cluster are thought to have a common origin and thus a single age and → chemical abundance; with some exceptions such as → Omega Centauri and NGC 2808, which exhibit multiple populations. The presence of various sub-populations within a globular cluster is interpreted as indicating distinct epochs of mass → accretion and/or major → star formation. The Milky Way hosts about 200 globular clusters. They are spherically distributed about the → Galactic Center up to a radius of 350 light-years, with a maximum concentration toward the Galactic center. All but the smallest → dwarf galaxies possess globular clusters. Some galaxies, e.g. M87, contain several thousands of them. There are, however, important differences. While all the globular clusters in our Galaxy and in → M31 are old (ages of about 10 billion years, at least), there are galaxies, such as the two → Magellanic Clouds and → M33, that host much younger globular clusters (ages of a few billion years, or less).

Globular, from → globule + -ar, variant of → -al; → cluster.

Xušé, → cluster; guysân "shaped like a globe," from guy, → globe + -sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career").

globule
  گویچه   
guycé (#)

Fr.: globule   

Generally, a small spherical mass, especially a small drop of liquid.
A dense spherical cloud of dust that absorbs radiation; → Bok globule.

From → globe + → -ule.

Guycé, fro guy, → globe, + -cé diminutive suffix, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak.

glory
  شکوه   
šokuh (#)

Fr.: gloire   

A colored aureole that is visible around the shadow of an observer's head, appearing on top of a cloud situated below the observer. A glory is caused by the same optics as a rainbow plus diffraction. → heiligenschein.

From O.Fr. glorie, from L. gloria "great praise or honor," of uncertain origin.

Šokuh, from Mid.Pers. škôh "magnificience, majesty, dignity; fear."

glottis
  چاکنای   
câknây (#)

Fr.: glotte   

The opening at the upper part of the → larynx, between the → vocal cords.

From Gk. glottis "mouth of the windpipe," from glotta, Attic dialect variant of glossa "tongue."

Câknây, literally "trachea's slit," from câk "slit, fissure," → rift, + nây, → trachea.

glow
  ۱) فروز، فروغ، فروزش؛ ۲) فروزیدن   
1) foruz, foruq, foruzeš; 2) foruzidan

Fr.: 1) rougoiement, incandescence, éclat; 2) rougeoyer, s'embraser, être incandescent, luire rouge   

1a) A light emitted by or as if by a substance heated to luminosity; incandescence. 1b) Brightness of color.
2a) To emit bright light and heat without flame; become incandescent.
2b) To shine like something intensely heated.
2c) To exhibit a strong, bright color; be lustrously red or brilliant (Dictionary.com).
afterglow, → airglow, → counterglow, → nightglow, → skyglow.

M.E. glowen, from O.E. glowan "to shine as if red-hot," ultimately from PIE *ghlo-.

Foruz-, foruzidan, afruxtan "to light, kindle;" related to foruq "light, brightness" (Mid.Pers. payrog "light, brightness"); rôšan "light; bright, luminous;" ruz "day;" Mid.Pers. rošn light; bright," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-; Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining, roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light," also lumen "light, window," luna "Moon;" E. light; Ger. Licht; Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness."

gluon
  گلویءون   
gluon (#)

Fr.: gluon   

The hypothetical particle, in the → quantum chromodynamics theory, that carries the force between → quarks. There are eight independent types of gluon.

From glue (O.Fr. glu, from L.L. glus "glue," from L. gluten "glue") + → -on.

glycolaldehyde
  گلیکو‌آلدهید   
glikoâldehid

Fr.: glycolaldéhyde   

The organic compound with the formula HOCH2-CHO. It is the simplest → sugar and the first intermediate product in the formose reaction that begins with formaldehyde (H2CO) and leads to the (catalyzed) formation of sugars and ultimately ribose, the backbone of RNA, under early Earth conditions. The presence of glycolaldehyde is therefore an important indication that the processes leading to biologically relevant molecules are taking place. However, the mechanism responsible for its formation in space is still unclear. Glycolaldehyde has been detected toward the → Galactic Center cloud Sgr B2, in the high-mass → hot molecular core G31.41+0.31, and more recently in the gas surrounding a young binary star with similar mass to the Sun (IRAS 16293-2422). See Jorgensen et al. 2012, astro-ph/1208.5498, and references therein.

From glycol, from glyc(erin) + (alcoh)ol + → aldehyde.

gnomon
  باهو   
bâhu

Fr.: gnomon   

1) A rod oriented in such a way that its shadow, cast by the Sun's rays, shows the hours on a → sundial; a style.
2) A device used in ancient times consisting of a vertical shaft used to measure the altitude of the Sun and hence to determine the time of day.

From L. gnomon, from Gk. gnomon "carpenter's square, rule; indicator," literally "one who discerns," from gignoskein "to know, think, judge," cognate with L. gnoscere, noscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânistan "to know;" Mod.Pers. šenâxtan, šenâs- "to recognize, to know," dânestan "to know;" Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan, E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know."

Bâhu "stick, staff; arm (from the elbow to the shoulder)," related to bâzu "arm," Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm," also "the shadow of the gnomon on a sundial; the bar of a chariot pole;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm."

gnomonic projection
  فراشانش ِ باهویی   
farâšâneš-e bâhu-yi

Fr.: projection gnomonique   

The projection of a spherical surface onto a plane through a point. A gnomonic → map projection displays all great circles as straight lines, and therefore indicates the shortest path between two points. Small circles are projected as conic sections.

gnomon; → -ic; → projection.

God
  خدا   
xodâ (#)

Fr.: dieu   

1) The Being perfect in power, wisdom, and goodness who is worshipped as creator and ruler of the Universe.
2) (lowercase) A being or object believed to have more than natural attributes and powers and to require human worship (Merriam-Webster.com). See also: → fingers of God

M.E. from O.E. akin to O.H.G. got, Ger. Gott, O.N. guð, Goth. guþ, from PIE *gheuH- "to call upon;" cf. Av. zu- "to call, invoke;" O.Pers. (upa)zu- "to proclaim;" Skt. hu-, variant hve- "to call upon, invoke," huta- "invoked," an epithet of Indra, from root *gheu(e)- "to call, invoke."

Xodâ, xodây "god, lord, master;" Mid.Pers. xwadây "king, master;" Av. xvadāta- "autonomous" (darego.xvadāta- "highly autonomous"), from xva-, → self- + dā- "to give, grant, yield" (Pers. dâdan, → datum); cf. Skt. svadhā- "inherent power, habitual power, self-placed," from sva- "self," + dhā- "to place, fix, maintain"

Godunov method
  روش ِ گودونوف   
raveš-e Godunov

Fr.: méthode de Godunov   

In numerical analysis and fluid dynamics, a conservative scheme for solving → partial differential equations based on utilizing the solution of the local → Riemann problem at each time step.

Suggested by Sergei K. Godunov (1929-) in 1959, Math. Sbornik, 47, 271, translated 1969, US Joint Publ. Res. Service, JPRS 7226; → method.

gold
  تلا، طلا، زر   
talâ (#), zarr (#)

Fr.: or   

A yellow, ductile → metal which occurs naturally in veins and alluvial deposits associated with quartz or pyrite; symbol Au (L. aurum "shining dawn"). → Atomic number 79; → atomic weight 196.9665; → melting point 1,064.43 °C; → boiling point 2,808 °C; → specific gravity 19.32 at 20 °C.

M.E., from O.E. gold, from P.Gmc. *gulth- (cf. O.H.G. gold, Ger. Gold, Du. goud, Dan. guld, Goth. gulþ), from PIE base *ghel-/*ghol- "yellow, green;" cf. Mod.Pers. zarr "gold," see below.

Talâ "gold," variants tala, tali.
Zarr "gold;" Mid.Pers. zarr; Av. zaranya-, zarənu- "gold;" O.Pers. daraniya- "gold;" cf. Skt. hiranya- "gold;" also Av. zaray-, zairi- "yellow, green;" Mod.Pers. zard "yellow;" Skt. hari- "yellow, green;" Gk. khloe literally "young green shoot;" L. helvus "yellowish, bay;" Rus. zeltyj "yellow;" P.Gmc. *gelwaz; Du. geel; Ger. gelb; E. yellow.

Goldbach's conjecture
  هاشن ِ گلدباخ   
hâšan-e Goldbach

Fr.: conjecture de Goldbach   

Every number greater than 2 is the sum of two → prime numbers. Goldbach's number remains one of the most famous unsolved mathematical problems of today.

Named after the German mathematician Christian Goldbach (1690-1764); → conjecture.

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