adad-e zarrin (#)
Fr.: nombre d'or
1) The number giving the position of any year in the lunar or
→ Metonic cycle of about 19 years.
Each year has a golden number between 1 and 19. It is found by adding
1 to the given year and dividing by 19; the remainder in the division
is the golden number. If there is no remainder the golden number
is 19 (e.g., the golden number of 2007 is 13).
Fr.: nombre d'or
If a line segment is divided into a larger subsegment (a) and a smaller subsegment (b), when the larger subsegment is related to the smaller exactly as the whole segment is related to the larger segment, i.e. a/b = (a + b)/a. The golden ratio, a/b is usually represented by the Greek letter φ. It is also known as the divine ratio, the golden mean, the → golden number, and the golden section. Its numerical value, given by the positive solution of the equation φ2 - φ - 1 = 0, is approximately 1.618033989. The golden ratio is closely related to the → Fibonacci sequence.
Fr.: anneau ténu
An extremely faint and broad ring (in fact two rings) of tiny particles around → Jupiter lying just outside the main ring.
Gossamer "a film of cobwebs floating in air in calm clear weather; an extremely delicate variety of gauze, used esp. for veils," from M.E. gossomer, from gos "goose" + somer "summer." Possibly first used as name for late, mild autumn, a time when goose was a favorite dish, then transferred to the cobwebs frequent at that time of year; → ring.
Halqé, → ring; tanté "cobweb, spider's web," from tanidan "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to spin, stretch;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch"), Pers. târ "string," tur "fishing net, net, snare," and tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect) belong to this family; variants tanta "cobweb," tanadu, tafen, kartané, kârtané, kâtené, Pashtu tanistah "cobweb;" cf. Skt. tantu- "cobweb, thread, string."
kamarband-e Gould (#)
Fr.: ceinture de Gould
A band of hot, young stars (O and B types) and molecular clouds that stretches around the sky. It is tilted by about 20 degrees with respect to the Galactic plane, and has a diameter of about 3000 light-years.
Named after the American astronomer Benjamin A. Gould (1824-1896), who discovered it in 1879 by studying the distribution of the nearest luminous stars in space; → belt.
General: To rule over, to exercise authority.
From O.Fr. governer "to govern," from L. gubernare "to direct, rule, guide," originally "to steer," from Gk. kybernan "to steer or pilot a ship" (the root of cybernetics).
Faršâyidan, from Av. fraxšā(y)- "to establish authority, to deploy lordship," from fra- "forward, forth" (Av. pouruua- "first"; cf. Skt. pūrva- "first," pra- "before, formerly," Gk. pro; L. pro; O.E. fyrst "foremost," superlative of fore, from P.Gmc. *furisto; E. fore) + xšā(y)- "to rule, have power," xšayati "has power, rules," xšāyô "power;" O.Pers. xša- "to rule," pati-xša- "to have lordship over," Xšyāršan- "hero among kings" or "ruling over heroes" the proper name of the Achaemenid emperor Hellenized as Xerxes, upari.xšay- "to rule over," xšāyaθiya- "king;" Mid.Pers. šâh "king," pâdixšâ(y) "ruler; powerful; authoritative;" Mod.Pers. šâh "king," pâdšâh "protecting lord, emperor, monarch, king," šâyestan "to be worth, suit, fit;" cf. Skt. ksā- "to rule, have power," ksáyati "possesses;" Gk. ktaomai "I acquire," ktema "piece of property;" PIE base *tkeh- "to own, obtain."
A regulating device for maintaining uniform speed regardless of changes of load, as by controlling the supply of gas, steam, fuel, etc.
Agent noun from → govern.
A block of the Earth's crust, bounded by two normal faults, that has dropped downward in relation to adjacent portions.
Graben, from Ger. Graben "ditch, trench;" O.H.G. graban "ditch," grab "grave, tomb;" Goth. graban "ditch;" P.Gmc. *graban; cf. O.E. græf "grave, ditch;" E. a grave; PIE base *ghrebh-/*ghrobh- "to dig, to scratch, to scrape."
Foruzamin, from foru- + zamin. The first component foru- "down, downward; below; beneath;" Mid.Pers. frôt "down, downward;" O.Pers. fravata "forward, downward;" cf. Skt. pravát- "a sloping path, the slope of a mountain." The second component zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."
1) padâk; 2) padâkidan
Fr.: 1) grade, échelon; 2) classer, noter, graduer
1) A degree or step in a scale, as of rank, advancement, quality, value, or intensity.
From Fr. grade "grade, degree," from L. gradus "step, pace, gait, walk;" figuratively "a step, stage, degree," related to gradi "to walk, step, go," and second element in congress, progress, etc.; from PIE *ghredh-; cf. Lith. gridiju "to go, wander," O.C.S. gredo "to come," O.Ir. in-greinn "he pursues."
Padâk, from Baluci padâk "step, stair, ladder" (ultimately from Proto-Ir. *padaka-), older form of Pers. pâyé "step, base," from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad-, cf. Skt. pat: Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes; PIE *pod-/*ped-.
1) General: Degree of slope.
From L. gradient-, gradiens, pr.p. of gradi "to walk, go," from grad- "walk" + -i- thematic vowel + -ent suffix of conjugation.
Ziné "ladder, steps, stair," may be related to ciné, from cidan "to place (something) above/upon (another similar thing);" cf. Lori râ-zina, Yazdi râ-cina "stairs," Nâyini orcen "stairs, ladder;" the phoneme change -c- into -z-, as in gozidan, gozin-/cidan, cin- both deriving from Proto-Ir. *cai- "to heap up, gather, collect."
Proceeding, taking place, changing by small degrees.
From M.L. gradualis, from L. gradus "step."
Padâkvâr, from padâk "grade," + -vâr a suffix which denotes
"suiting, befitting, resembling, in the manner of, possession."
belk-e padâkvâr, ~ pâypâyé
Fr.: sursaut graduel
A burst that happens gradually, in contrast to a sudden burst.
1a) padâk dâdan; 1b) padâk gereftan; 2) padâkmand
Fr.: 1a) graduer; 1b) obtenir son diplôme; 2) licencié, diplômé
1a) To divide into or mark with degrees or other divisions, as the scale of a thermometer.
M.E., from M.L. graduatus, p.pa. of graduari "to take a degree," from L. gradus "step, → grade."
1a, 2) padâk-dahi; 1b, 2) padâk-giri; 1) darajé-bandi (#)
1) Marking the scale of an instrument, e.g. the stem of a thermometer is graduated in
Verbal noun of → graduate.
1) A small, hard seed of plants, especially the seed of cereals.
M.E. grain, grein, from O.Fr. grein, from L. granum "seed;" akin to corn.
Dâné "grain, seed;" Mid.Pers. dân, dânag "seed, corn;" Av. dānô- in dānô.karš- "carrying grains; an ant;" cf. Skt. dhânâ- "corn, grain;" Tokharian B tāno "grain;" Lith. duona "corn, bread."
Fr.: coagulation des grains
Sticking together of micron- to centimetre-sized grains occurring in the interstellar and protoplanetary environments to form larger grain agglomerates.
Fr.: évaporation des grains
Conversion of dust grains into smaller grains due to high environmental temperatures.
Fr.: formation des grains
The process by which dust grains are assembled or produced.
ruyeš-e dâné (#)
Fr.: croissance des grains
The increase of dust grains to micron sizes in the interstellar environments due to various physical processes, for example mutual collisions and accumulation of ice mantles.
rupuš-e dâné (#)
Fr.: manteau de grain
A layer of icy molecules covering interstellar dust grains.
→ grain; mantle, from O.E. mentel "loose, sleeveless cloak," from L. mantellum "cloak," perhaps from a Celtic source.
Rupuš "overgarment, cloak," from ru "surface, face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + puš "covering, mantle," from pušidan "to cover; to put on" (Mid.Pers. pôšidan, pôš- "to cover; to wear;" cf. Mid.Pers. pôst; Mod.Pers. pust "skin, hide;" O.Pers. pavastā- "thin clay envelope used to protect unbaked clay tablets;" Skt. pavásta- "cover," Proto-Indo-Iranian *pauastā- "cloth").
Fr.: érosion des grains par pulvérisation
The ejection of atoms from interstellar dust grains due to impact by gas ions, which leads to grain destruction.
→ grain; sputtering, from sputter "to spit with explosive sounds," cognate with Du. sputteren.
Osparâni, verbal noun of osparândan, from os- "out of, outside," → ex- + parândan "to eject," transitive of paridan "to fly" (from Mid./Mod.Pers. par(r) "feather, wing," Av. parəna- "feather, wing;" cp. Skt. parna "feather," E. fern; PIE *porno- "feather").