An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 399
gram
  گرم   
geram (#)

Fr.: gramme   

A unit of mass equal to one thousandth of a kilogram.

From Fr. gramme, from L.L. gramma "small weight," from Gk. gramma "small weight," originally "letter of the alphabet," from stem of graphein "to draw, write."

Geram, loanword from Fr. gramme, as above.

grand design spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ فرساز   
kahkešân-e mârpic-e farsâz

Fr.: galaxie spirale parfaite   

A galaxy with prominent → arms that are clearly attached to the central → bulge or → bar spiraling continuously outward until they reach the edge of the visible disk. Some examples are: → Whirlpool galaxy (M51), M74 (NGC 628), and NGC 2997.

M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" design, from M.E. designen, from L. designare "mark out, designate, appoint," from → de- "out" + signare "to mark," from signumsign; → spiral; → galaxy.

Kahkešân, → galaxy; mârpicspiral; farsâz, → perfect.

grand unified theory (GUT)
  نگره‌ی ِ یگانش ِ بزرگ   
negare-ye yegâneš-e bozorg (#)

Fr.: théorie de la grande unification   

Any physical theory that unites the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions at high energy. It is hoped that GUTs can ultimately be extended to incorporate gravity. → theory of everything.

M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" unified, p.p. of → unify; → theory.

Negâré, → theory; yegâneš, verbal noun of yegânestan, → unify; bozorggreat.

granulation
  دانه‌بندی   
dâne-bandi

Fr.: granulation   

The mottled appearance of the solar → photosphere, caused by → convective cells, resembling → granules, which rises from the interior of the Sun. Each granule has a mean size of about 1,000 km and an upward velocity of about 0.5 km/sec. Granules are separated by intergranular walls about 400 K colder. They emerge from the fragments of the preceding granules and their lifetimes are about 20 minutes.

From → granule + -ation a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Dâne-bandi, from dâné, → grain, + bandi verbal noun of bastan, vastan "to bind, shut;" O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

granule
  دانول   
dânul

Fr.: granule   

A tiny grain; a small particle.
One of the convective cells constituting the solar → granulation.

From L.L. granulum "small grain," from → gain + → -ule.

grape
  انگور   
angur (#)

Fr.: raisin   

The edible, pulpy, smooth-skinned berry or fruit that grows in clusters on vines of the genus Vitis, and from which wine is made (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. grape "bunch of grapes, grape."

Angur "grape," from Mid.Pers. angur "grape;" cf. Khwarazmi 'nkyδ, Yidgha agidro, Munji aglero, Shughni angûrδ, related to quré "unripe grape."

graph
  نگاره   
negâré (#)

Fr.: diagramme, graphique, graphe   

1) A visual representation of data that displays the relationship among variables, usually cast along X and Y axes.
2) In → graph theory, a graph G = (V, E) consists of a set of objects V called vertices and a set E which contains unordered pairs of distinct elements of V called edges.

Short for graphic (formula), from L. graphicus "of painting or drawing," from Gk. graphikos "able to draw or paint," from graph(ein) "to draw, write" + -ikos, → ic.

Negâré, from negâr "picture, figure" (verb negârdan, negâštan "to paint"), from prefix ne-, O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base *kwer- "to do, to make").

graph theory
  نگره‌ی ِ نگاره   
negare-ye negâré

Fr.: théorie des graphes   

The branch of → mathematics dealing with → graphs. In particular, it involves the ways in which sets of points (→ vertex) can be connected by lines or arcs (→ edge).

graph; → theory.

graphic
  نگاریک   
negârik

Fr.: graphique   

(Adj.) Pertaining to the use of diagrams, graphs, mathematical curves, or the like.
Math.: Pertaining to the determination of values, solution of problems, etc., by direct measurement on diagrams instead of by ordinary calculations.
(n.) A product of the graphic arts, as a drawing or print. A computer-generated image.

graph + → -ic.

graphite
  گرافیت   
gerâfit (#)

Fr.: graphite   

A particular crystalline form of → carbon occurring as a soft, black, lustrous mineral. The carbon atoms in graphite are strongly bonded together in sheets. Because the bonds between the sheets are weak, other atoms can easily fit between them, causing graphite to be soft and slippery to the touch. Graphite conducts electricity and is used in lead pencils and electrolytic anodes, as a lubricant, and as a moderator in nuclear reactors. If graphite is subjected to high pressure, it will be transformed into → diamond.
Graphite is present in the → interstellar medium; it forms in circumstellar shells and supernova ejecta. In particular, the 2175 Å interstellar extinction feature is accounted for by small graphite grains.

From Ger. Graphit, from Gk. graph(ein) "to write, draw," so called because it was used for pencils, → graph + -it a suffix of chemical compounds, equivalent to E. -ite.

grating
  توری، ~ ِ پراش   
turi, ~ -e parâš (#)

Fr.: réseau   

Same as → diffraction grating.

M.E. grating, M.L. grata "a grating," variant of crata, from crat-, stem of cratis "wickerwork."

Turi, from tur "fishing net, net, snare," variants târ "thread, warp, string," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch").

grating angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ توری   
zâviye-ye turi (#)

Fr.: angle de réseau   

The angle between the incident optical beam and the normal to the grating. It is the angle to which the grating must be set to place the desired wavelength at the center of the detector.

grating; → angle.

grating efficiency
  کار‌آیی ِ توری   
kârâyi-ye turi (#)

Fr.: efficacité de réseau   

The measure of the light intensity diffracted from a grating.

grating; → efficiency.

grating groove
  شیار ِ توری   
šiyâr-e turi (#)

Fr.: trait du réseau, sillon ~ ~   

One of thousands of long, narrow indentations in the surface of a → diffraction grating.

grating; → groove.

gravitate
  گرانیدن   
gerânidan (#)

Fr.: graviter   

To move or tend to move under the influence of gravitational force.

From L. gravitatus, p.p. of gravitâre, from gravis "heavy," → gravity.

Gerânidan, infinitive of gerân, → gravity.

gravitation
  گرانش   
gerâneš (#)

Fr.: gravitation   

1) The universal phenomenon of attraction between material bodies. → Newton's law of gravitation.
2) The act or process of moving under the influence of this attraction.

Verbal noun of → gravitate.

gravitational
  گرانشی   
gerâneši (#)

Fr.: gravitationnel   

Of or relating to or caused by → gravitation.

Adj. of → gravitation.

gravitational acceleration
  شتاب ِ گرانشی   
šetâb-e gerâneši (#)

Fr.: accélération gravitationnelle   

The acceleration caused by the force of gravity. At the Earth's surface it is determined by the distance of the object form the center of the Earth: g = GM/R2, where G is the → gravitational constant, and M and R are the Earth's mass and radius respectively. It is approximately equal to 9.8 m s-2. The value varies slightly with latitude and elevation. Also known as the → acceleration of gravity.

gravitational; → acceleration.

gravitational attraction
  درکشش ِ گرانشی   
darkešeš-e gerâneši

Fr.: attraction gravitationnelle   

The force that pulls material bodies toward one another because of → gravitation.

gravitational; → attraction.

gravitational collapse
  رمبش ِ گرانشی   
rombeš-e gerâneši (#)

Fr.: effondrement gravitationnel   

Collapse of a mass of material as a result of the mutual → gravitational attraction of all its constituents.

gravitational; → collapse.

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