girande-ye heterodini (#)
Fr.: récepteur hétérodyne
Fr.: technique hétérodyne
Noun from → heterogeneous.
1) Composed of parts of different kinds; having widely dissimilar elements or constituents.
See also → homogeneous,
Methodology, Math.: Pertaining to a method of analyzing outcome through comparison to previously recognized patterns in the absence of an → algorithm for formal proof.
From L. heuristicus (from Gk. heuretikos "inventive," related to heuriskein "to find," from heur-) + -isticus, → -ic.
šešbar (#), šešguš (#)
A six-sided → polygon.
Fr.: étoile HgMn
A → chemically peculiar star of late → B-types. The most distinctive features of HgMn stars are extreme atmospheric overabundance of Hg (up to 5 dex) and of Mn (up to 3 dex). The origin of abundance anomalies observed in late B-type stars with HgMn peculiarity is still poorly understood. More than two thirds of the HgMn stars are known to belong to spectroscopic binaries with a preference of orbital periods ranging from 3 to 20 days (Hurbig et al., 2012, arXiv:1208.2910).
Hickson Compact Group (HCG)
goruh-e hampak-e Hickson
Fr.: groupe compact de Hickson
A list of 100 compact groups of galaxies that were identified by a systematic search of the → Palomar Observatory Sky Survey red prints. Each group contains four or more galaxies, has an estimated mean surface brightness brighter than 26.0 magnitude per arcsec2 and satisfies an isolation criterion.
Being out of sight; concealed.
From M.E., from O.E. hydan, from W.Gmc. *khuthjanan, from PIE *keudh- (cf. Gk. keuthein "to hide, conceal"), from base *(s)keu- "to cover, conceal."
Penhân "hidden," from Mid.Pers. pad nihân, from pad "to, at, for, in" (from O.Pers. paity; Av. paiti "to, toward, in, at;" cf. Skt. práti; Gk. poti) + nihân "concealment, secrecy, hiding place" (Mod.Pers. nahân), from Proto-Iranian *ni-dāna-, from ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + dā- "to put; to establish; to give" (dadâiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadâti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give").
jerm-e penhân (#)
Fr.: masse cachée
Fr.: variable caché
A theory based on the hypothesis that the discrepancies with respect to classical reality found in → quantum mechanics stem from our lack of knowledge about the observed system (→ EPR paradox). According to this hypothesis, the system should be described by additional quantum parameters, of still unknown nature, but different from position, velocity, spin, etc. The hidden variable theory has been ruled out by the violation of → Bell's inequality for all theories with local property, as suggested by the → Aspect experiment.
xušé bandi-ye pâygâni
Fr.: groupement hiérarchique
A model in which a system of self-gravitating particles will gradually aggregate into larger and larger gravitationally bound groups and clusters.
Fr.: cosmologie hiérarchique
A cosmology characterized by clustering of galaxy clusters in increasingly larger systems.
hierarchical multiple system
râžmân-e bastâyi-ye pâygâni
Fr.: système multiple hiérarchique
A → multiple star system in which the stars can be divided into two groups, each of which traverses a larger orbit around the system's center of mass. Each of these smaller groups must also be hierarchical, which means that they must be divided into smaller subgroups which themselves are hierarchical, and so on. Hierarchical multiple systems have long-term dynamical stability.
hierarchical structure formation
diseš-e sâxtâr-e pâygâni
Fr.: formation de structures hiérarchiques
A cosmological → structure formation model in which the smallest gravitationally bound structures (→ quasars and galaxies) form first, followed by → groups, → galaxy clusters, and → superclusters of galaxies.
hierarchical triple system
râžmân-e bastâyi-ye nâpâygâni
Fr.: système multiple non hiérarchique
A triple star system in which the (inner) binary is orbited by a third body in a much wider orbit. → hierarchical multiple system.
A system in which the components are organized in increasingly larger structures.
From O.Fr. ierarchie, from M.L. hierarchia "ranked division of angels," from Gk. hierarchia "rule of a high priest," from hierarches "high priest, leader of sacred rites," from ta hiera "the sacred rites" (neut. pl. of hieros "sacred") + archein "to lead, rule."
Pâygân, from pâyé "step, rank, degree," from pây, pâ "foot, step," from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot" (cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, gen. podos; L. pes, gen. pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + -gân suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, from Proto-Iranian *kāna-ka-.
boson-e Higgs (#)
Fr.: boson de Higgs
A hypothetical, neutral → elementary particle which plays a key role in the → standard model of → particle physics. This massive particle, whose mass is estimated to be about 125 GeV (→ giga → electron-volts) and a zero → spin, carries the → Higgs field. In the current version of the → electroweak theory, → W boson and → Z boson and all the fundamental constituents (→ quarks and → leptons) get their masses by interacting with the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is produced by the fusion of two → gluons via a triangular loop of virtual top quarks. In the decay process, a loop of virtual top quarks allows the Higgs boson to decay into two photons. The particle's discovery was announced by → CERN in July 2012.
Named after the Scottish physicist Peter Ware Higgs (1929-), one of the researchers who theorized the existence of this particle in 1964. In fact three groups of physicists almost simultaneously published their results on this subject: François Englert and Robert Brout in August 1964; Peter Higgs in October 1964; and Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen, and Tom Kibble in November 1964; → boson.