An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 439
hierarchical clustering
  خوشه‌بندی ِ پایگانی   
xušé bandi-ye pâygâni

Fr.: groupement hiérarchique   

A model in which a system of self-gravitating particles will gradually aggregate into larger and larger gravitationally bound groups and clusters.

hierarchical; → clustering.

hierarchical cosmology
  کیهان‌شناسی ِ پایگانی   
keyhânšenâsi-ye pâygâni

Fr.: cosmologie hiérarchique   

A cosmology characterized by clustering of galaxy clusters in increasingly larger systems.

hierarchical; → cosmology.

hierarchical multiple system
  راژمان ِ بستایی ِ پایگانی   
râžmân-e bastâyi-ye pâygâni

Fr.: système multiple hiérarchique   

A → multiple star system in which the stars can be divided into two groups, each of which traverses a larger orbit around the system's center of mass. Each of these smaller groups must also be hierarchical, which means that they must be divided into smaller subgroups which themselves are hierarchical, and so on. Hierarchical multiple systems have long-term dynamical stability.

hierarchical; → multiple; → system.

hierarchical structure formation
  دیسش ِ ساختار ِ پایگانی   
diseš-e sâxtâr-e pâygâni

Fr.: formation de structures hiérarchiques   

A cosmological → structure formation model in which the smallest gravitationally bound structures (→ quasars and galaxies) form first, followed by → groups, → galaxy clusters, and → superclusters of galaxies.

hierarchical; → structure; → formation.

hierarchical triple system
  راژمان ِ بستایی ِ ناپایگانی   
râžmân-e bastâyi-ye nâpâygâni

Fr.: système multiple non hiérarchique   

A triple star system in which the (inner) binary is orbited by a third body in a much wider orbit. → hierarchical multiple system.

hierarchical; → stellar; → system.

hierarchy
  پایگان   
pâygân (#)

Fr.: hiérarchie   

A system in which the components are organized in increasingly larger structures.

From O.Fr. ierarchie, from M.L. hierarchia "ranked division of angels," from Gk. hierarchia "rule of a high priest," from hierarches "high priest, leader of sacred rites," from ta hiera "the sacred rites" (neut. pl. of hieros "sacred") + archein "to lead, rule."

Pâygân, from pâyé "step, rank, degree," from pây, pâ "foot, step," from Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Av. pad- "foot" (cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, gen. podos; L. pes, gen. pedis; P.Gmc. *fot; E. foot; Ger. Fuss; Fr. pied; PIE *pod-/*ped-) + -gân suffix forming plural entities, from Mid.Pers. -gânag, -gâna, from Proto-Iranian *kāna-ka-.

Higgs boson
  بوسون ِ هیگز   
boson-e Higgs (#)

Fr.: boson de Higgs   

A hypothetical, neutral → elementary particle which plays a key role in the → standard model of → particle physics. This massive particle, whose mass is estimated to be about 125 GeV (→ giga → electron-volts) and a zero → spin, carries the → Higgs field. In the current version of the → electroweak theory, → W boson and → Z boson and all the fundamental constituents (→ quarks and → leptons) get their masses by interacting with the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is produced by the fusion of two → gluons via a triangular loop of virtual top quarks. In the decay process, a loop of virtual top quarks allows the Higgs boson to decay into two photons. The particle's discovery was announced by → CERN in July 2012.

Named after the Scottish physicist Peter Ware Higgs (1929-), one of the researchers who theorized the existence of this particle in 1964. In fact three groups of physicists almost simultaneously published their results on this subject: François Englert and Robert Brout in August 1964; Peter Higgs in October 1964; and Gerald Guralnik, Carl Hagen, and Tom Kibble in November 1964; → boson.

Higgs field
  میدان ِ هیگز   
meydân-e Higgs

Fr.: champ de Higgs   

A → scalar field supposed to be responsible for the genesis of → inertial mass. According to the → standard model of → particle physics, the Higgs field appeared 10-36 to 10-12 seconds after the → Big Bang, during the → electroweak epoch, when the temperature dropped below a critical threshold. The Higgs field permeates all space, and through its interaction with the fundamental particles it provides those particles with a mass. Any particle that does not interact with the Higgs field, such as the → photon, will be mass-less.

Higgs boson; → field.

Higgs mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ هیگز   
sâzokâr-e Higgs

Fr.: mécanisme de Higgs   

In the → standard model of → particle physics, a mechanism postulated to endow mass to → elementary particles. Simply put, a background field, called the → Higgs field, becomes locally distorted whenever a particle moves through it. The distortion generates the particle's mass.

Higgs boson; → mechanism.

high
  بلند؛ مِه؛ پُر   
boland (#); meh (#); por (#)

Fr.: haut   

1) Situated above the ground or exceeding the common degree or measure.
2) Exceeding the common degree or measure; strong; intense.
3) Meteo.: An area of high pressure, referring to a maximum of atmospheric pressure. Same as → anticyclone (Fr. haute pression).

M.E. heigh, variants hegh, hey, heh; O.E. heh, heah "of great height, lofty, tall," (cf. Du. hoog, O.H.G. hoh, Ger. hoch, Goth. hauhs "high;" also Ger. Hügel "hill"); from PIE *koukos "hill."

Boland "high," variants bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Lori dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."
Meh "great, large" (Mid.Pers. meh, mas, Av. maz-, masan-, mazant- "great, important," mazan- "greatness, majesty," mazišta- "greatest," cf. Skt. mah-, mahant-, Gk. megas, L. magnus; PIE *meg- "great").
Por "much, very, too much; full" (Mid.Pers. purr "full;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Av. parav-, pauru-, pouru-, from par- "to fill;" PIE base *pelu- "full," from *pel- "to be full;" cf. Skt. puru-; Gk. polus; O.E. full).

High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.)
  راژمان ِ استریوی ِ مه‌ کاروژ   
râžmân-e estereyo-ye meh kâruž (H.E.S.S.)

Fr.: Système stéréoscopique de haute énergie (H.E.S.S.)   

An array of → IACT telescopes for studying cosmic → gamma rays in the 100 GeV to 100 TeV energy range. The HESS observatory is located in Namibia, southern Africa, at an altitude of 1800 m, and the project is an international collaboration of more than 100 scientists from nine countries. In its Phase I, HESS used four telescopes each consisting of a light collector with a diameter of 13 m and a focal length of 15 m placed at the corners of a square 120 m apart. Each telescope is segmented into 380 round mirror facets of 60 cm diameter and uses a camera consisting of 960 closely packed → photomultiplier tubes. The first of the telescopes went into operation in Summer 2002. Phase II includes a fifth telescope, called Large Cherenkov Telescope (LCT), of 27 m diameter, located in the centre of the initial array. This upgrade lowers the triggering threshold of the HESS array to about 20 GeV, thus broadening the energy window in which gamma-ray astronomy can be done, opening up more opportunities in astrophysical research (see, e.g., Bernlöhr et al. 2003, Astroparticle Physics 20, 111).

H.E.S.S., short for High Energy Stereoscopic System, is also intended to pay homage to Victor F. Hess (1883-1964), an Austrian-American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1936 for his discovery of → cosmic rays.

high latitudes
  وَروناهای ِ بالا   
varunâhâ-ye bâlâ

Fr.: hautes latitudes   

The latitude belt roughly between 60 and 90 degrees North and South. Also referred to as the polar region.

high; → latitude.

high redshift object
  بر‌آخت ِ مه-سرخ‌کیب   
barâxt-e meh-sorxkib

Fr.: objet à grand décalage vers le rouge   

A galaxy or quasar having a → redshift larger than about 0.8, corresponding to a → look-back time half the present age of the Universe. The qualifier "high" is, however, relative and depends on context and authors' assessment.

high; → redshift; → object.

high tide
  اوپیش، کشند، مد   
owpiš (#), kešand (#), madd (#)

Fr.: marée haute   

The state of the → tide when at its highest level.

high; → tide.

Owpiš, from Persian Gulf dialects, literally "forward water," from ow, variant of âb, → water, + piš "→ forward."
Madd, loan from Ar.

high water
  اوپیش، برکشند، مد   
owpiš (#), barkešand (#), madd(#)

Fr.: marée haute   

Also known as → high tide.

high; → water.

high-energy astrophysics
  اخترفیزیک ِ مه‌کاروژ   
axtarfizik-e meh-kâruž

Fr.: astrophysique des hautes énergies   

A branch of astrophysics that deals with objects emitting highly energetic radiation, such as X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, and extreme ultraviolet astronomy, as well as neutrinos and cosmic rays.

high; → energy; → astrophysics.

high-energy cosmic rays
  پرتوهای ِ کیهانی ِ مه‌کاروژ، ~ ~ پرکاروژ   
partowhâ-ye keyhâni-ye meh-kâruž, ~ ~ por-kâruž

Fr.: rayons cosmiques de hautes énergies   

Cosmic rays which typically have energies in the range 1015 to 1020 electron volts. For the most part, they are protons and other atomic nuclei, and come from distant cosmos, perhaps even from outside our own Galaxy.

high; → energy; → cosmic; → ray.

high-energy neutrino
  نوترینو‌ی ِ مه‌کاروژ   
notrino-ye meh-kâruž

Fr.: neutrino haute énergie   

A neutrino produced in high-energy particle collisions, such as those occurring when → cosmic rays strike atoms in the Earth's → atmosphere. Their energy range expands from a few → MeVs up to tenths of a → peta- (P) → electron-volts.

high; → energy; → neutrino.

high-excitation blob (HEB)
  ژیگ ِ پر-بر‌انگیزش   
žig-e por-barangizeš

Fr.:   

A rare class of → H II regions in the → Magellanic Clouds. In contrast to the typical H II regions of the Magellanic Clouds, which are extended structures (sizes of several arc minutes corresponding to more than 50 pc, powered by a large number of exciting stars), HEBs are very dense and small regions (~ 4" to 10" in diameter corresponding to ~ 1-3 pc). They have a higher degree of → excitation ([O III] 5007Å /Hβ) with respect to the typical H II regions, and are, in general, heavily affected by local → dust. They are powered by a relatively smaller number of → massive stars.

high; → excitation; → blob.

high-mass star
  ستاره‌ی ِ مِه‌جرم، ~ پُرجرم   
setâre-ye meh-jerm (#), ~ por-jerm (#)

Fr.: étoile massive   

A star whose mass exceeds 8 solar masses. Same as → massive star. → intermediate-mass star; → low-mass star.

high; → mass; → star.

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