An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 439
hole
  سوراخ، چاله، چال   
surâx (#), câlé (#), câl (#)

Fr.: trou   

1) General: An opening through something; an area where something is missing; a serious discrepancy.
2) Astro.: → black hole; → coronal hole.
3) Electronics: The absence of an electron in the valency structure of a crystalline semiconductor, behaving like a positive charge carrier.

O.E. hol "orifice, hollow place," from P.Gmc. *khulaz (cf. O.H.G. hol, M.Du. hool, Ger. hohl "hollow"), from PIE base *kel- "to cover, conceal." → cell.

Surâx "hole," from Mid.Pers. sûlâk "whole, aperture," Av. sūra- "hole;" cf. Gk. koilos "hollow," L. cava "cave," cavus "hollow;" PIE base keuə- "to swell; vault, hole."
Câlé, câl "hole," from câh "a well, pit," from Mid.Pers. câh "a well;" Av. cāt- "a well," from kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Mod.Pers. kandan "to dig"); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs," kha- "cavity, hollow, cave, aperture."

hole injection
  درشانش ِ سوراخ، ~ چاله   
daršâneš-e surâx, ~ câlé

Fr.: injection de trou   

The injection of holes in a semiconductor which can be produced by application of a sharp conducting point in contact with an n-type semiconductor.

hole; → injection.

holiday
  ۱) سپنت‌روز؛ ۲) آسودروز؛ ۳) آسودگان   
1) sepantruz; 2) âsudruz; 3) âsudgân

Fr.: 1); 2) férié; 3) vacances   

1) A day fixed by law or custom on which ordinary business is suspended in commemoration of some event or in honor of some person.
2) Any day of exemption from work.
3) (in plural form) A period of cessation from work or one of recreation; vacation.

O.E. haligdæg, from halig "holy," → heiligenschein, + dæg, → day.

1) Sepantruz, from sepant "holy," → heiligenschein, + ruz, → day.
2) Âsudruz, from âsud, âsudan "to rest, repose," from Mid.Pers. âsutan, Av. ā- + saē- (saii-) "to lie down, go to sleep;" + ruz, → day.
3) Âsudgân, from âsud, as before, + -gân suffix forming plurals.

holo-
  هرو-   
haru- (#)

Fr.: holo-   

A combining form meaning "complete, entire, total, whole," used in the formation of compound words: → holonomic, → holography, holomorphic.

From M.E. holo-, from O.fr., from L. hol-, holo-, from Gk. holos "whole," akin to Pers. har- "every, all, each, any," as below.

Haru, from Mid.Pers. har(v) "all, each, every" (Mod.Pers. har "every, all, each, any"); O.Pers. haruva- "whole, all together;" Av. hauruua- "whole, at all, undamaged;" cf. Skt. sárva- "whole, all, every, undivided;" Gk. holos "whole, complete;" L. salvus "whole, safe, healthy," sollus "whole, entire, unbroken;" PIE base *sol- "whole."

holocaust
  هروسوچ   
harusuc

Fr.: holocauste, shoa   

1) A great or complete devastation or destruction, especially by fire.
2) (usually initial capital letter, preceded by the) The systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from L.L. holocaustum, from Gk. holokaustos "burnt whole;" see → holo- "complete, entire, total," → caustic "burning; burnt."

Harusuc "entirely burnt;" → holo-, → caustic "burning; burnt."

hologram
  هرونگاشت   
harunegâšt (#)

Fr.: hologramme   

A three-dimensional image produced with the technique of → holography.

holo-; → -gram.

holographic
  هرونگاریک   
harunegârik

Fr.: holographique   

Of, relating to, or produced using → holography; three-dimensional.

holo- + → -graphic.

holographic grating
  توری ِ هرونگاریک   
turi-ye harunegârik

Fr.: réseau holographique   

A → diffraction grating produced from a series of constructive → interference fringes. The fringes, whose intensities vary in a sinusoidal pattern, correspond to the grooves of the grating. They are recorded on a photosensitive substrate and subsequently treated using a chemical procedure. Since the grooves are created by the interference of light, such a grating is free from the random and periodic errors present in → ruled gratings.

holographic; → grating.

holography
  هرونگاری   
harunegâri (#)

Fr.: holographie   

A technique for making three-dimensional images by recording → interference patterns from a split → laser beam on a medium such as photographic film. One of the → coherent beams irradiates the object, the second beam illuminates a recording medium. The two beams produce an interference pattern, called → hologram, on the film. The hologram contains information on both → phase and → amplitude of the object. However, this information is in a coded form, and the image must be reconstructed. When the object is removed and the hologram is illuminated by the laser from the original direction, a 3-dimensional image of the object appears where the object was originally, as if it were not removed. The visible object seems so real that the observer can detect → parallax by changing the position of one's head.

From → holo- "whole" + → -graphy. By using the term holography, Dennis Gabor (1900-1979), the Hungarian-British electrical engineer and inventor, wanted to stress that the technique records complete information about a wave, both about its amplitude and its phase, in contrast to the usual photography in which only the distribution of the amplitude is recorded.

holonomic system
  راژمان ِ هروداتیک   
râžmân-e harudâtik

Fr.: système holonomique   

A material system in which the → constraints can be expressed in the form of an equation relating the coordinates.

From Gk. → holo- "whole" + -nomic, related to nomos "law, managing, governing, custom," → -nomy; → system.

homage
  بزرگداشت   
bozorgdâšt (#)

Fr.: hommage   

1) Respect or reverence paid or rendered.
2) Something done or given in acknowledgment or consideration of the worth of another (Dictionary.com).

M.E. (h)omage, from O.Fr. homage "allegiance or respect for one's feudal lord," from homme "man," → human, + -age.

Bozordgâšt, literally "considered to be great," from bozorg "large, magnificent, great," → magnify, + dâšt, dâštan "to maintain, consider, possess, keep in mind, hold, have," → property.

homo-
  هم-   
ham- (#)

Fr.: homo-   

A combining form meaning "same" used in the formation of compound words. Also, especially before a vowel, hom-.

Homo-, from Gk. homos "one and the same," also "belonging to two or more jointly," from PIE *somos; cf. Pers. ham-, as below; Lith. similis "like," Goth. sama "the same," samana "together."

Ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-.

homocentric spheres
  سپهرهای ِ هم‌مرکز   
sepehrhâ-ye ham-markaz

Fr.: sphères homocentriques   

Concentric → spheres of Eudoxus.

homo-; → center; → -ic; → sphere.

homogeneity
  همگنی   
hamgeni (#)

Fr.: homogénéité   

State or quality of having a uniform appearance or composition, being homogeneous

homogeneous + → -ity.

homogeneous
  همگن   
hamgen (#)

Fr.: homogène   

1) Of uniform composition or having a common property throughout.
2) Math.: Of the same kind so as to be commensurable. Of the same degree or dimension. → anisotropic homogeneous cosmological model, → homogeneous fluid, → homogeneous linear differential equation, → homogeneous Universe, → homogeneous turbulence, → inhomogeneous, → nonhomogeneous, → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation.

Homogeneous, from M.L. homogeneus, from Gk. homogenes "of the same kind," from homos "same," → homo-, + genos "race, kind," gonos "birth, offspring," from PIE base *gen-/*gon-/*gn- "to produce, beget, be born," cf. Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born," zana- "race" (in sruuô.zana- "belonging to the race of the horned ones"), O.Pers. zana- "tribe" (in paru-zana- "consisting of many tribes"), Skt. janati "begets, bears," jana- "creature, human being, race, tribe, people;" L. genus "race, stock, kind," gignere "to beget."

Hamgen "of the same kind, like each other; friend, partner," from ham-, → homo-, + gen "kind," O.Pers./Av. zana- "race; tribe," cognate with L. genus, as above). Alternatively, gen may be a variant of Mid./Mod.Pers. gôn/gun "kind, type; manner; color, skin color," from Av. gaona- "hair, hair color, color."

homogeneous fluid
  شارّه‌ی ِ همگن   
šârre-ye hamgen (#)

Fr.: fluide homogène   

A fluid with uniform properties throughout, but meteorologists sometimes designate as homogeneous a fluid with constant density.

homogeneous, → fluid.

homogeneous linear differential equation
  هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی همگن   
hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti hamgen

Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire homogène   

A → linear differential equation if the right-hand member is zero, Q(x) = 0, on interval I.

homogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation.

homogeneous turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ همگن   
âšubnâki-ye hamgen (#)

Fr.: turbulence homogène   

Turbulence in which spatial derivatives of all mean turbulent quantities are negligible.

homogeneous, → turbulence.

homogeneous Universe
  گیتی ِ همگن   
giti-ye hamgen (#)

Fr.: Univers homogène   

A model Universe which is homogeneous and → isotropic on large scales. It is modeled by a → Robertson-Walker cosmology. A homogeneous Universe is filled with a constant density and negligible pressure. Any small spatial region is characteristic for the whole Universe.

homogeneous; → Universe.

homomorphism
  هم-ریخت‌مندی   
ham-rixtmandi

Fr.: homomorphisme   

A → mapping between two mathematical → objects that preserves the object structure. A general → morphism.

homo-; → morphism.

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