An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 442
homogeneous turbulence
  آشوبناکی ِ همگن   
âšubnâki-ye hamgen (#)

Fr.: turbulence homogène   

Turbulence in which spatial derivatives of all mean turbulent quantities are negligible.

homogeneous, → turbulence.

homogeneous Universe
  گیتی ِ همگن   
giti-ye hamgen (#)

Fr.: Univers homogène   

A model Universe which is homogeneous and → isotropic on large scales. It is modeled by a → Robertson-Walker cosmology. A homogeneous Universe is filled with a constant density and negligible pressure. Any small spatial region is characteristic for the whole Universe.

homogeneous; → Universe.


Fr.: homomorphisme   

A → mapping between two mathematical → objects that preserves the object structure. A general → morphism.

homo-; → morphism.

homonuclear molecule
  مولکول ِ هم‌هسته   
molekul-e ham-hasté

Fr.: molécule homonucléaire   

A molecule that is composed of only one type of → chemical element, e.g. the → molecular hydrogen and → ozone.

homo-; → nuclear; → molecule.

Homunculus Nebula
  میغ ِ آدمک   
miq-e âdamak

Fr.: nébuleuse de l'Homoncule   

A nebula of gas and dust (about 17" x 12" in size), which surrounds the massive star Eta Carinae and lies about 7500 light-years away. The surrounding material was ejected by the massive star in 1843 during its violent eruption, and is now expanding at about 500 km/sec.

Homunculus, "a diminutive human being; little man" (since the nebula resembled a small human to early observers), from L. homin-, homun-, homo "eartly being," humus "the earth" (cf. Pers. zamin "earth, ground," Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth") + → -ula, -ule; → nebula.

Miq, → nebula; âdamak "little man."


Fr.: crochet   

1) A curved or bent piece of metal or other hard material for catching, holding, or hanging something.
2) Something curved or bent like a hook.

M.E. hoke, O.E. hoc "hook, angle;" cf. M.Du. hoek, Du. haak, Ger. Haken "hook."

Qollab "a hook, a hooked device," probably ultimately from Proto-Ir. gart- "to turn;" cf. Pers. gard-, gardidan, gaštan "to turn, to wind;" cognate with dialectal qellidan "to roll."

Hooke's law
  قانون ِ هوک   
qânun-e Hooke (#)

Fr.: loi de Hooke   

The law stating that if a body is deformed the → strain produced is directly proportional to the applied → stress. If the elastic limit is not exceeded, the material returns to its original shape and size on the removal of the stress. Hooke's law forms the basis of the theory of → elasticity.
More specifically, within certain limits, the force required to stretch an elastic object such as a metal spring is directly proportional to the extension of the spring. It is commonly written: F = -kx, where F is the force, x is the length of extension/compression and k is a constant of proportionality known as the spring constant.

Named after Robert Hooke (1635-1703), British scientist who described the relationship in 1676; → law.


Fr.: 1) sautiller, sauter; 2) sautillement, saut   

1) To move by a quick springy leap or in a series of leaps. (Of a person) Move by jumping on one foot. (Of a bird or other animal) move by jumping with two or all feet at once.
2) An act of hopping; short leap.

M.E. hoppen; O.E. hoppian; cognate with Ger. hopfen, O.N. hoppa.

Kopidan, from kop; cf. (Bašâgardi) kup, (Lârestâni) komp, (Bardesiri) gopak, (Sistâni) job, (Kermâni) pok, pokidan "jump, leap."

ofoq (#)

Fr.: horizon   

1) An imaginary circle that delimits the sky and the Earth.
2) The fundamental great circle of the → horizon system, defined by the intersection of the → celestial sphere and a level plane passing through the observer. → celestial horizon.
3) In → Robertson-Walker models, the boundary separating objects already observed from those not yet observed, or the boundary separating objects observable from unobservable (J. Plebanski, A. Krasinski, 2006, An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology, Cambridge Univ. Press).
4) → cosmic horizon.
5) → event horizon.
See also:
apparent horizon, → artificial horizon, → astronomical horizon, → dip of the horizon, → distance to the horizon, → geometric horizon, → horizon coordinate system, → horizon problem, → horizon system, → particle horizon, → sea horizon, → sensible horizon, → sound horizon, → true horizon, → visible horizon.

From O.Fr. orizon, from orizonte, from L. horizontem (nom. horizon), from Gk. horizon kyklos "bounding circle," from horizein "bound, limit, divide, separate," from horos "boundary."

Ofoq, from Ar.

horizon coordinate system
  راژمان ِ هم‌آراهای ِ افقی   
râžmân-e hamârâhâ-ye ofoqi

Fr.: coordonnées horizontales   

The coordinate system based on the position of the observer. The horizontal plane is the fundamental plane and the coordinates are → altitude and → azimuth.

horizon; → coordinate; → system.

horizon problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ افق   
parâse-ye ofoq

Fr.: problème de l'horizon   

A problem with the standard cosmological model of the Big Bang related to the observational fact that regions of the Universe that are separated by vast distances nevertheless have nearly identical properties such as temperature. This contradicts the fact that light moves with a finite speed and, as a result, certain events which occur in the Universe are completely independent of each other. Inflationary cosmology offers a possible solution.

horizon; → problem.

horizon system
  راژمان ِ افقی   
râžmân-e ofoqi

Fr.: coordonnées horizontales   

Same as → horizon coordinate system.

horizon; → system.

ofoqi (#)

Fr.: horizontal   

1) Of or pertaining to the → horizon.
2) At right angles to the → vertical; parallel to level ground.
See also:
blue horizontal branch star, → extreme horizontal branch star, → field horizontal branch star, → horizontal branch, → horizontal branch star, → horizontal eclipse, → horizontal parallax, → horizontal refraction, → red horizontal branch star, → supra-horizontal branch star, → zero age horizontal branch star.

From → horizon + → -al.

horizontal branch (HB)
  شاخه‌ی ِ افقی   
šâxe-ye ofoqi (#)

Fr.: branche horizontale   

A set of roughly horizontal points in the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of a typical → globular cluster. It displays a stage of stellar evolution which immediately follows the → red giant branch (RGB) in stars with an initial mass < 1.2 Msun. When the star's ascent of the RGB is terminated by the → helium flash, it moves down to the HB. The star's → effective temperature on the HB is higher than it was on the RGB, but the luminosity is considerably less than at the helium flash. Usually HB stars have two energy sources: in addition to the → helium burning in their cores, they experience → hydrogen fusion in a surrounding shell. The thickness of the shell determines the color of the HB stars. A thin shell, involving low → opacity, makes the star look blue. The HB domain encompasses a very large effective temperature range with several members: → extreme HB, → blue HB, → RR Lyrae, → red HB, and → red clump stars. The locations depend on many parameters, including stellar mass, metallicity, age, helium abundance, and rotation.

horizontal; → branch.

horizontal branch star
  ستاره‌ی ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی   
setâre-ye šâxe-ye ofoqi

Fr.: étoile de la branche horizontale   

A star lying on the → horizontal branch.

horizontal; → branch; → star.

horizontal eclipse
  ماه‌گرفت ِ افقی   
mâhgereft-e ofoqi

Fr.: selenelion   

A type of → lunar eclipse that occurs when both the Sun and the eclipsed Moon can be observed at the same time. This is possible only when lunar eclipse occurs just before sunset or just after sunrise. At that case, both bodies will appear just above the horizon at nearly opposite points in the sky. Also called → selenelion and → selenehelion.

horizontal; → eclipse.

horizontal parallax
  دیدگشت ِ افقی   
didgašt-e ofoqi

Fr.: parallaxe horizontale   

The angle under which the radius of the Earth at the place of observation would be seen from a celestial body when it is in the horizon (at the instant of rising or setting). The amount varies with the latitude since the Earth is not exactly spherical, and is greatest at equator.

horizontal; → parallax.

horizontal refraction
  شکست ِ افقی   
šekast-e ofoqi (#)

Fr.: réfraction horizontale   

The angular distance of an object below the horizon when it appears to lie on the horizon.

horizontal; → refraction.

horizontal scaling
  مرپلش ِ افقی   
marpeleš- ofoqi


In computer science, a scaling in which the processing power is increased/decreased by adding/removing nodes with similar resources. See also → vertical scaling.

horizontal; → scaling.

  ۱) شاخ؛ ۲) شاخک؛ ۳) کرنا   
1) šâx; 2) šâxak; 3) karnâ

Fr.: 1) corne; 2) cornet; 3) cor   

1a) The bony pointed outgrowth, usually in pairs, on the heads of some animals.
1b) Astro.: Either of the ends of the → crescent Moon.
2) Something resembling a horn.
3) A wind instrument, originally an animal horn used as a wind instrument.
See also: → feedhorn

M.E. horn(e), from O.E. horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument" (originally made from animal horns), from P.Gmc. *khurnaz (cf. Ger. Horn, Du. horen), from PIE *ker- "head, horn, top, summit" (cf. Pers. soru "horn," sar "head," Gk. kara "head," karena "head, top," keras "horn;" L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;" Skt. śiras- "head, chief").

1, 2) Mid.Pers šâk; cf. Skt. sakha- "a branch, a limb;" Arm. cax; Lith. šaka; O.S. soxa; PIE *kakhâ "branch."
3) Karnâ "a trumpet-like wind instrument," variant sornâ "a wind instrument," probably related to soru, sorun "horn," sar "head;" Mid.Pers. sar "head," sru "horn;" Av. sarah- "head," srū- "horn, nail;" cognate with E. horn, as above, from PIE *ker- "head, horn."

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