hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
siyânur-e hidrožen (#)
Fr.: cyanure d'hydrogène
A colorless or light blue liquid or gas, a triatomic cyanide, which is extremely flammable. HCN is an important industrial chemical and over a million tonnes are produced yearly in the world. It is produced industrially by reacting methane and ammonia in air at high temperature. A wide range of combustion processes produce HCN gas in the smoke or fumes. HCN is found naturally throughout the environment at low levels as it is released from volcanoes and certain plants and bacteria. Hydrogen cyanide is abundant in all kinds of astronomical environments, from dark clouds to star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes. The first detection of interstellar HCN (at 88.6 GHz) and H13N (at 86.3 GHz) was reported by Buhl & Snyder (1971, ApJ 163, L47). Also called → hydrocyanic acid and → prussic acid.
Fr.: fusion de l'hydrogène
hidron, yon-e hidrož
Fr.: hydron, ion hydrogène
xatt-e hidrožen (#)
Fr.: raie de l'hydrogène
hydrogen shell burning
suzeš-e puste-ye hidrožen
Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hydrogène
A phase in the life of a star that has left the → main sequence. When no more hydrogen is available in the core, the core will start to contract as it is no longer releasing the necessary energy whose pressure supports the surrounding layers. As a result of this contraction, gravitational energy is converted into thermal energy and the temperature will rise. Therefore a shell of unprocessed material surrounding the original core will be heated sufficiently for hydrogen burning to start. During the evolution of → asymptotic giant branch stars hydrogen shell burning occurs alternatively with helium shell burning. → double shell burning.
To undergo or cause to undergo a reaction with hydrogen. Same as → hydrogenize.
The process of combining or exposing to → hydrogen.
The study, measurement, and description of depths and currents in open seas, lakes, estuaries, and rivers.
carxe-ye âbšenâsik (#), ~ âbšenâxti (#)
Fr.: cycle hydrologique
The vertical and horizontal transport of water in all its states between the earth, the atmosphere, and the seas; often called the water cycle.
The study of the waters of the earth, especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of water in streams, lakes, and on or below the land surface.
Same as → magnetohydrodynamics.
The general name for the atomic hydrogen → cation H+.
A → water, → molecule with an additional hydrogen ion (H3O+). Also called hydronium ion. Hydronium is an abundant molecular ion in the interstellar diffuse and dense molecular clouds (→ Sagittarius B2, → Orion molecular cloud OMC-1) as well as the plasma tails of → comets (→ Halley, → Hale-Bopp).
From hydr-, → hydro- + -onium a suffix used in the names of complex cations, extrcated from ammonium "ionized ammonia" (NH4+).
A term denoting the water portion of the Earth's surface.
Of or pertaining to → hydrostatics.
Fr.: équation hydrostatique
The equation describing the → hydrostatic equilibrium in a star, expressed as: dP/dr = -GMρ/r2, where P and M are the mass and pressure of a spherical shell with thickness dr at some distance r around the center of the star, ρ is the density of the gas, and G the → gravitational constant.
Fr.: équilibre hydrostatique
1) The physical situation reached in a fluid when complete balance exists between
the internal pressure at any point and the weight of the material above the point.
Fr.: halo hydrostatique
A model of the → Milky Way galaxy in which the → Galactic halo (composed of → gas, → magnetic fields, and → cosmic rays) is assumed to be in → hydrostatic equilibrium. Parker (1966) presented the first study of stability considerations between gas, magnetic fields and cosmic rays in an equilibrium configuration. He found that it is difficult to maintain a stable configuration due to magnetohydrodynamic self-attraction (→ Parker instability). Subsequent works taking into account turbulent motions showed that turbulent pressure can mitigate the influence of Parker instabilities. This enabled new attempts to find conditions under which a stable equilibrium configuration of the Galaxy could exist.
Fr.: pression hydrodynamique
The term ρgz in the → Bernoulli equation. It is not pressure in a real sense, because its value depends on the reference level selected.