An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 442
hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
  سیانور ِ هیدروژن   
siyânur-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: cyanure d'hydrogène   

A colorless or light blue liquid or gas, a triatomic cyanide, which is extremely flammable. HCN is an important industrial chemical and over a million tonnes are produced yearly in the world. It is produced industrially by reacting methane and ammonia in air at high temperature. A wide range of combustion processes produce HCN gas in the smoke or fumes. HCN is found naturally throughout the environment at low levels as it is released from volcanoes and certain plants and bacteria. Hydrogen cyanide is abundant in all kinds of astronomical environments, from dark clouds to star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes. The first detection of interstellar HCN (at 88.6 GHz) and H13N (at 86.3 GHz) was reported by Buhl & Snyder (1971, ApJ 163, L47). Also called → hydrocyanic acid and → prussic acid.

hydrogen; → cyanide.

hydrogen fusion
  ایوش ِ هیدروژن   
iveš-e hidrožen

Fr.: fusion de l'hydrogène   

A → nuclear reaction where hydrogen (H) nuclei combine to form helium (4He) nuclei. Same as the → proton-proton chain.

hydrogen; → fusion.

hydrogen ion
  هیدرون، یون ِ هیدروژن   
hidron, yon-e hidrož

Fr.: hydron, ion hydrogène   

Chemistry: The → positively charged hydrogen atom, H+, formed by removal of the orbital electron. Same as → proton.

hydrogen; → ion.

hydrogen line
  خط ِ هیدروژن   
xatt-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: raie de l'hydrogène   

An → emission or → absorption line in the spectra of various astronomical objects produced by the presence of hydrogen atoms in particular physical conditions.

hydrogen, → line.

hydrogen shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته‌ی ِ هیدروژن   
suzeš-e puste-ye hidrožen

Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hydrogène   

A phase in the life of a star that has left the → main sequence. When no more hydrogen is available in the core, the core will start to contract as it is no longer releasing the necessary energy whose pressure supports the surrounding layers. As a result of this contraction, gravitational energy is converted into thermal energy and the temperature will rise. Therefore a shell of unprocessed material surrounding the original core will be heated sufficiently for hydrogen burning to start. During the evolution of → asymptotic giant branch stars hydrogen shell burning occurs alternatively with helium shell burning. → double shell burning.

hydrogen; → shell; → burning.


Fr.: hydrogéner   

To undergo or cause to undergo a reaction with hydrogen. Same as → hydrogenize.

hydrogen; → -ate.


Fr.: hydrogénisation   

The process of combining or exposing to → hydrogen.


Fr.: hydrogéner   


hydrogen; → -ize.

âbnegâri (#)

Fr.: hydrographie   

The study, measurement, and description of depths and currents in open seas, lakes, estuaries, and rivers.

hydro- + → -graphy.

hydrologic cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ آب‌شناسیک، ~ آب‌شناختی   
carxe-ye âbšenâsik (#), ~ âbšenâxti (#)

Fr.: cycle hydrologique   

The vertical and horizontal transport of water in all its states between the earth, the atmosphere, and the seas; often called the water cycle.

Hydrologic, pertaining to → hydrology; → cycle.

âbšenâsi (#)

Fr.: hydrologie   

The study of the waters of the earth, especially with relation to the effects of precipitation and evaporation upon the occurrence and character of water in streams, lakes, and on or below the land surface.

Hydrology, from → hydro-; + → -logy.


Fr.: hydromagnétisme   

Same as → magnetohydrodynamics.

hydro-; → magnetics.

hidron (#)

Fr.: hydron   

The general name for the atomic hydrogen → cation H+.

hydro-; → -on.


Fr.: hydronium   

A → water, → molecule with an additional hydrogen ion (H3O+). Also called hydronium ion. Hydronium is an abundant molecular ion in the interstellar diffuse and dense molecular clouds (→ Sagittarius B2, → Orion molecular cloud OMC-1) as well as the plasma tails of → comets (→ Halley, → Hale-Bopp).

From hydr-, → hydro- + -onium a suffix used in the names of complex cations, extrcated from ammonium "ionized ammonia" (NH4+).

âbsepehr (#)

Fr.: hydrosphère   

A term denoting the water portion of the Earth's surface.

hydro-; → sphere.

  هیدر-ایستاییک، هیدر-ایستا   

Fr.: hydrostatique   

Of or pertaining to → hydrostatics.

hydro- + → static.

hydrostatic equation
  هموگش ِ هیدر-ایستاییک   
hamugeš-e hidristâik

Fr.: équation hydrostatique   

The equation describing the → hydrostatic equilibrium in a star, expressed as: dP/dr = -GMρ/r2, where P and M are the mass and pressure of a spherical shell with thickness dr at some distance r around the center of the star, ρ is the density of the gas, and G the → gravitational constant.

hydrostatic; → equation.

hydrostatic equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ هیدر-ایستاییک، ~ هیدر-ایستا   
tarâzmandi-ye hidristâik

Fr.: équilibre hydrostatique   

1) The physical situation reached in a fluid when complete balance exists between the internal pressure at any point and the weight of the material above the point.
2) For a star, the balance between the inward → gravitational force and the outward gas pressure everywhere in the star. → hydrostatic equation. See also → hydrodynamic equilibrium.

hydrostatic; → equilibrium.

hydrostatic halo
  هاله‌ی ِ هیدر-ایستا   
hâle-ye hidristâ

Fr.: halo hydrostatique   

A model of the → Milky Way galaxy in which the → Galactic halo (composed of → gas, → magnetic fields, and → cosmic rays) is assumed to be in → hydrostatic equilibrium. Parker (1966) presented the first study of stability considerations between gas, magnetic fields and cosmic rays in an equilibrium configuration. He found that it is difficult to maintain a stable configuration due to magnetohydrodynamic self-attraction (→ Parker instability). Subsequent works taking into account turbulent motions showed that turbulent pressure can mitigate the influence of Parker instabilities. This enabled new attempts to find conditions under which a stable equilibrium configuration of the Galaxy could exist.

hydrostatic; → halo.

hydrostatic pressure
  فشار ِ هیدروتوانیک   
fešâr-e hidrotavânik

Fr.: pression hydrodynamique   

The term ρgz in the → Bernoulli equation. It is not pressure in a real sense, because its value depends on the reference level selected.

hydrostatic; → pressure.

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