An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -he Haf hal har har HD hea hel hel Her Her hid hig Hip hol hor hot Hoy Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp > >>

Number of Results: 478
  هیدریده، آبیده   
hidridé, âbidé (#)

Fr.: hydraté   

Combined with → water molecules.

P.p./adj. of → hydrate.

  هیدرش، آبش   
hidreš, âbeš (#)

Fr.: hydratation   

The process of combining with → water.

Verbal noun of → hydrate.

hidrolic (#)

Fr.: hydraulique   

Operated, moved, or employing water or other liquids in motion.

From Gk. hydraulikos organon "water organ," from → hydro- "water" + aulos "musical instrument, hollow tube."

hydraulic ram
  قوچ ِ هیدرولیک   
quc-e hidrolik

Fr.: bélier hydraulique   

A device, which uses the energy of water flowing by gravity intermittently through a pipe to force a small portion of the water to a height greater than that of the source.

hydraulic; → ram.

hidrur (#)

Fr.: hydrure   

A binary compound containing hydrogen and another element, such as CH, OH, and HCl.

hydr- + -ide.

Hidrur, loan from Fr.

  هیدرو-، هیدر-، آب-   
hidro- (#), hidr- (#), âb- (#)

Fr.: hydro-   

A combining form (hydr- before a vowel) originally meaning "water," but also "liquid, gas." In chemical nomenclature, often denotes a compound of hydrogen.

Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water," cognate with Skt. udá- "water;" Khotanese ūtcā "water;" Hittite uātar; L. unda "wave;" O.C.S., Rus. voda; Lith. vanduo; P.Gmc. *watar (cf. Du. water; O.H.G. wazzar; Ger. Wasser; Goth. wato; O.E. wæter; E. water); from PIE base *wed- "water; wet."

Hidro-, loanword from Gk., as above. Âb- "water," from Mid.Pers. âb "water;" O. Pers. ap- "water;" Av. ap- "water;" cf. Skt. áp- "water;" Hitt. happa- "water;" PIE āp-, ab- "water, river;" cf. Gk. Apidanos, proper noun, a river in Thessalia; L. amnis "stream, river" (from *abnis); O.Ir. ab "river," O.Prus. ape "stream," Lith. upé "stream;" Latv. upe "brook."

hidrokarbon (#)

Fr.: hydrocarbure   

Any of a class of compounds containing only → hydrogen and → carbon. Hydrocarbons are organic compounds found in coal, petroleum, natural gas, and plant life. They are used as fuels, solvents, and as raw materials for numerous products such as dyes, pesticides, and plastics. Petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons.

hydro- + → carbon.

hydrocyanic acid
  اسید سیانیدریک   
asid siyânidrik (#)

Fr.: acide cyanhydrique   

Same as → hydrogen cyanide.

hydro-; → cyano-; → acid.


Fr.: hydrodynamique   

Of or pertaining to → hydrodynamics.

hydro- + → dynamic.

hydrodynamic equation
  هموگش ِ هیدروتوانیک   
hamugeš-e hirdrotavânik

Fr.: équation hydrodynamique   

Fluid mechanics: A → partial differential equation which describes the motion of an element of fluid subjected to different forces such as pressure, gravity, and frictions.

hydrodynamic; → equation.

hydrodynamic equilibrium
  ترازمندی ِ هیدروتوانیک   
tarâzmandi-ye hirdrotavânik

Fr.: équilibre hydrodynamique   

The state of a star when all its internal forces are in equilibrium. The main forces are gas pressure, radiation pressure due to thermonuclear fusion that tends to disrupt the star, and the opposing gravity. → hydrostatic equilibrium.

hydrodynamic; → equilibrium.


Fr.: hydrodynamique   

The branch of physics dealing with the motion, energy, and pressure of neutral → fluids.

hydro- + → dynamics.

hydrogen (H)
hidrožen (#)

Fr.: hydrogène   

The most abundant → chemical element in the Universe. Symbol H; → atomic number 1; → atomic weight 1.00794; → melting point -259.14°C; → boiling point -252.87°C. It was discovered by the English physicist Henry Cavendish in 1766, who called it the "inflammable air."
See also:
antihydrogen, → atomic hydrogen, → heavy hydrogen, → hydrogen bond, → hydrogen burning, → hydrogen coma, → hydrogen cyanide, → hydrogen fusion, → hydrogen ion, → hydrogen line, → hydrogen shell burning, → hydrogenate, → hydrogenation, → hydrogenize, → ionized hydrogen region, → metallic hydrogen, → molecular hydrogen, → neutral hydrogen, → orthohydrogen, → parahydrogen, → triatomic hydrogen molecular ion.

Hydrogen, from Fr. hydrogène, from Gk. hydro-, combining form of hydor "water" → hydro- + Fr. -gène "producing," → -gen; coined in 1787 by the French chemist Guyton de Morveau (1737-1816) because it forms water when exposed to oxygen.

hydrogen bond
  بند ِ هیدروژنی   
band-e hidroženi

Fr.: liaison hydrogène   

The attractive force between the hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of a different molecule. Usually the electronegative atom is oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine, which has a partial negative charge. The hydrogen then has the partial positive charge.

hydrogen; → bond.

hydrogen burning
  سوزش ِ هیدروژن   
suzeš-e hidrožen

Fr.: combustion de l'hydrogène   

proton-proton chain.

hydrogen; → burning.

hydrogen coma
  گیس ِ هیدروژنی   
gis-e hidroženi

Fr.: chevelure d'hydrogène   

The cometary cloud of hydrogen, detectable in ultraviolet light, that is immensely bigger than even the huge visible coma it surrounds. It is produced by the dissociation of water into hydrogen and oxygen and by other processes set into motion by solar radiation and and the solar wind.

hydrogen, → coma.

hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
  سیانور ِ هیدروژن   
siyânur-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: cyanure d'hydrogène   

A colorless or light blue liquid or gas, a triatomic cyanide, which is extremely flammable. HCN is an important industrial chemical and over a million tonnes are produced yearly in the world. It is produced industrially by reacting methane and ammonia in air at high temperature. A wide range of combustion processes produce HCN gas in the smoke or fumes. HCN is found naturally throughout the environment at low levels as it is released from volcanoes and certain plants and bacteria. Hydrogen cyanide is abundant in all kinds of astronomical environments, from dark clouds to star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes. The first detection of interstellar HCN (at 88.6 GHz) and H13N (at 86.3 GHz) was reported by Buhl & Snyder (1971, ApJ 163, L47). Also called → hydrocyanic acid and → prussic acid.

hydrogen; → cyanide.

hydrogen fusion
  ایوش ِ هیدروژن   
iveš-e hidrožen

Fr.: fusion de l'hydrogène   

A → nuclear reaction where hydrogen (H) nuclei combine to form helium (4He) nuclei. Same as the → proton-proton chain.

hydrogen; → fusion.

hydrogen ion
  هیدرون، یون ِ هیدروژن   
hidron, yon-e hidrož

Fr.: hydron, ion hydrogène   

Chemistry: The → positively charged hydrogen atom, H+, formed by removal of the orbital electron. Same as → proton.

hydrogen; → ion.

hydrogen line
  خط ِ هیدروژن   
xatt-e hidrožen (#)

Fr.: raie de l'hydrogène   

An → emission or → absorption line in the spectra of various astronomical objects produced by the presence of hydrogen atoms in particular physical conditions.

hydrogen, → line.

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