1) xarman; 2) xarman kardan, ~ bardâštan
Fr.: 1) moisson, récolte; 2) récolter
1a) The gathering of a ripened → crop.
M.E. hervest, from O.E. hærfest "autumn;" cognate with Du. herfst, Ger. Herbst "autumn"); PIE *(s)kerp- "to gather, pluck, harvest," from *(s)ker- "to cut" (cf. Skt. krpāna- "sword, knife;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" Av. karət- "to cut," Mod.Pers. kârd "knife," as below).
Xarman, ultimately from *xramana-, from *xram- "to thresh;" cf. Ormuri šraməd, Parâci khamör, Yidgha xurom, xuräm; Nuristâni Kati kram- "to thresh;" Skt. kram- "to stride out, to go" (H. W. Bailey, 1979).
mâh-e xarman bardâri
Fr.: lune de moisson
1) lâcidan; 2) lâceš; daricé
Fr.: 1) éclore; 2) éclosion; volet
1) (of an egg) To open and produce a young animal; emerge from its egg.
1) M.E. hachen "to produce young from eggs by incubation," probably from
an unrecorded O.E *hæccan, of unknown origin, related to
M.H.G., Ger. hecken "to mate" (used of birds).
1) Lâcidan, from Tabari lâc "open, separated, wide aprat"
(lâc hâytan "to split, to crack," lâc bazoən "to split,
to tear"), may be from Proto-Ir. *rauj "to break, burst;"
cf. Av. (+*fra-) fra.uruxti- "destruction;" Khotanese *rrus-
"to burst, break;" Baluchi ruj- "to break open;" Bartangi, Oroshori
ruj-/ruxt- "to dig;" Skt. roj- "to break, break open;"
Pali luki- "part;" L. lugere "to mourn, grieve;"
Armenian lucanem "I break up."
Hatsya, of unknown origin.
A → dwarf planet located beyond → Neptune's orbit (→ trans-Neptunian object). Haumea is roughly the same size as → Pluto. It spins on its axis once every four hours, making it the fastest spinning known large object in the → solar system. It has two known moons, called Hi'aka and Namaka. Observations from multiple Earth-based observatories of Haumea passing in front of a distant star indicate the presence of a ring with a width of 70 km and radius of about 2,287 km. The ring is coplanar with both Haumea's equator and the orbit of its satellite Hi'aka. The → occultation by the main body indicates an oblong shape for Haumea with axes of about 2,322 × 1,701 × 1,138 km. In other words, along one direction, Haumea is significantly longer than → Pluto, while in another direction it has an extent very similar to Pluto, while in the third direction is much smaller. Haumea's orbit sometimes brings it closer to the Sun than Pluto, but usually Haumea is further (Ortiz et al., 2017, Nature 550, 219, doi:10.1038/nature24051).
Named for the Hawaiian goddess of childbirth and fertility (temporary designation 2003 EL61). Its moons are named for daughters of Haumea.
tâbeš-e Hawking (#)
Fr.: rayonnement de Hawking
The radiation produced by a → black hole when → quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. According to quantum physics, large fluctuations in the → vacuum energy occurs for brief moments of time. Thereby virtual particle-antiparticle pairs are created from vacuum and annihilated. If → pair production happens just outside the → event horizon of a black hole, as soon as these particles are formed they would both experience drastically different → gravitational attractions due to the sharp gradient of force close to the black hole. One particle will accelerate toward the black hole and its partner will escape into space. The black hole used some of its → gravitational energy to produce these two particles, so it loses some of its mass if a particle escapes. This gradual loss of mass over time means the black hole eventually evaporates out of existence. See also → Bekenstein formula, → Hawking temperature.
Named after the British physicist Stephen Hawking (1942-2018), who provided the theoretical argument for the existence of the radiation in 1974; → radiation.
Fr.: température de Hawking
The temperature inferred for a → black hole based on the → Hawking radiation. For a → Schwarzschild black hole, one has TH = ħc3/(8πGMk) where ħ is the → reduced Planck's constant, c is the → speed of light, G is the → gravitational constant, M is the mass, and k is → Boltzmann's constant. The formula can approximately be written as: TH≅ 6.2 x 10-8 (Msun/M) K. Thus radiation from a solar mass black hole would be exceedingly cold, about 5 x 107 times colder than the → cosmic microwave background. Larger black holes would be colder still. Moreover, smaller black holes would have higher temperatures. A → mini black hole of mass about 1015 g would have TH≅ 1011 K.
A Japanese → asteroid sampling mission devoted to the study of → Ryugu. It was launched on December 3, 2014 and successfully arrived at the asteroid on June 27, 2018. The Hayabusa2 mission includes four rovers with various scientific instruments. On September 21, 2018 the first two of these rovers, MINERVA-II robots, which hop around the surface of the asteroid, were released from Hayabusa2. This marked the first time a mission has completed a successful landing on a fast-moving asteroid body. This was followed later by the deployment of MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout), a lander developed by the German space agency DLR in partnership with the French Center for Spatial Studies (CNES). It carried four instruments and with its 16 h lifetime battery collected data on the surface structure and mineralogical composition, the thermal behaviour and the magnetic properties of the asteroid. Hayabusa2 is expected to leave Ryugu with the collected samples in late 2019 and return to Earth in 2020.
Hayabusa "peregrine falcon" in Japanese.
Hayashi forbidden zone
zonâr-e baſkam-e Hayashi
Fr.: zone interdite de Hayashi
The region to the right the → Hayashi track, representing objects that cannot be in → hydrostatic equilibrium. Energy transport in these objects would take place with a → superadiabatic temperature gradient.
Fr.: phase de Hayashi
A period in the → pre-main sequence evolution of a low mass star during which the star has negligible nuclear energy production and low internal temperature. Hence energy transport inside the star takes place dominantly through → convection. The star contracts homologously and evolves in the → H-R diagram along the → hayashi track with decreasing → luminosity and nearly constant → effective temperature. The time taken by a star of mass M* to contract to radius R* along a Hayashi track is of the order of the → Kelvin-Helmholtz time: tKH = 107(M*/Msun)2/(R*/Rsun)3 yr.
Fr.: température de Hayashi
The minimum → effective temperature required for a → pre-main sequence star of given mass and radius to be in → hydrostatic equilibrium. This temperature delimits the boundary of the → Hayashi forbidden zone.
Fr.: trajet de Hayashi
The path on the → Hertzsprung-Russell diagram that is followed by a fully → convective → pre-main sequence star to reach the → zero-age main sequence. Hayashi tracks for → low-mass stars are near vertical. At higher masses, stars become increasingly radiative as they contract and the Hayashi tracks are almost horizontal.
Named after the Japanese astrophysicist Chushiro Hayashi (1920-2010), who published his paper in 1961 (PASJ 13, 450); → track.
Fr.: hasard, risque, danger
1) A danger that one can foresee but cannot avoid.
M.E. hasard, from O.Fr. hasard, hasart "game of chance played with dice," possibly from Sp. azar "an unfortunate card or throw at dice," postulated to derive from Ar. az-zahr "the die," but this etymology is controversial.
Âpé, from Av. au-pat-, "to fall down, off," from pat- "to fall, fly;" Proto-Ir. *pat- "to fall; fly; rise;" related to Pers. oftâdan "to fall; to befall; to happen," → fall. Pers. âfat "blight, pest, curse," may belong to this family.
1) Full of risk; perilous; risky.
Adj. from → hazard.
Fr.: brume sèche
Maybe from M.E. *hase, O.E. hasu, variant of haswa "ashen, dusky."
Nezm "mist, fog, vapor."
Fr.: HD 140283
An extremely → metal-poor and high-velocity F3-type → subgiant with → apparent visual magnitude 7.205 ± 0.02. It has other designations, among which BD-10 4149, GJ 1195, HIP 76976, and SAO 159459. HD 140283 is situated in the solar neighborhood at some 200 → light-years from the Earth (→ trigonometric parallax 17.15 ± 0.14 mas) in the constellation → Libra. Its color E(B - V) = 0.000 yields a visual → absolute magnitude MV = +3.377. Its → surface temperature is Teff = 5777 K. Its iron and oxygen surface → chemical abundancees relative to hydrogen are [Fe/H] = -2.40 and [O/H] = -1.67, making it the most metal-poor star so far known (2021). Using precise observational data, an age of 14.46 ± 0.8 Gyr has been derived for this star. Within the errors, the age of HD 140283 does not conflict with the age of the → Universe, 13.77 ± 0.06 Gyr, obtained from the → cosmic microwave background radiation and the → Hubble constant. HD 140283 must have formed soon after the → Big Bang and is the oldest known star. This is why it is sometimes nicknamed the → Methuselah star (H. E. Bond et al., 2013, arxiv.1302.3180).
The star's name in the → Henry Draper system
Fr.: HD 43317
A → hot star of → apparent visual magnitude 6.61 lying in the constellation → Orion. HD 43317 has a B3.5V → spectral type and has no detected binary companion. Its chemical surface abundances agree with the solar abundances, but with some co-rotating He abundance spots at the stellar surface. The CoRoT satellite revealed that HD 43317 is a → hybrid pulsator of → Slowly Pulsating B star (SPB)/ → Beta Cephei type. Its → rotation period is 0.897673(4) days. Zeeman signatures in the Stokes V profiles of HD 43317 are clearly detected and rotationally modulated, which proves that this star exhibits an oblique magnetic field. The strength of the dipolar magnetic field is of the order of 1 kG to 1.5 kG (Buysschaert et al., 2017, A&A 605, A104).
→ HD number.
Fr.: HD 5980
A remarkable → binary star system composed of → massive stars that is associated with NGC 346, the largest → H II region + OB star cluster in the → Small Magellanic Cloud. HD 5980 is a rather complex system because it consists of at least three stars: two stars form an → eclipsing binary with a period of 19.266 days, while the third component, an → O star, is detected by means of a set of absorption lines. Whether or not the third star is physically bound to the eclipsing binary remains currently unclear. HD 5980 underwent an → LBV-type event in August 1994. Before the LBV eruption, both components of the eclipsing binary already showed emission lines in their spectra and were thus classified as → Wolf-Rayet stars. However, as shown by the analysis of the spectra taken during and after the LBV event, at least the star that underwent the eruption was not a classical, helium-burning, Wolf-Rayet object, but rather a WNha star. This means a rather massive star with substantial amounts of hydrogen present in its outer layers. These WNha stars have → stellar wind properties that are intermediate between those of extreme → Of stars and classical → WN Wolf-Rayet stars.
Fr.: HD 93129
A multiple → O-type star in the → Trumpler 14 cluster, which consists of at least three components. The main component, HD 93129A, is of spectral type O2 If*, a very rare hot star and the closest known O2 star (Walborn et al. 2002). It is one of the most luminous stars known. HD 93129B, lying 2.7 arcsec apart, is an O3.5 V((f+)) type. Recent → HST observations have shown that component A is itself probably a double or → binary star with a separation of 0.055 arcsec.
→ HD number.
Fr.: HD 97950
The core of the Galactic → giant H II region, → NGC 3603. It is a multiple object composed of several → massive stars with a collective → spectral type of around WN6+O5. One of the stars, → NGC 3603A-1, is a double-eclipsing binary with an orbital period of 3.77 days. The component masses are 116 Msun for the primary and 89 Msun for the secondary, respectively. The primary WN6ha component of A1 is the most massive star ever directly weighed. A second star, C, has newly been identified, which has been classified as an SB1 binary, and in which only the primary (WN6ha) component is visible. The third star, B, shows constant radial velocities over the observed time interval, and therefore is most likely not a binary. While the primary component of C might have a mass similar to or even greater than that of A1's primary, it is possible that star B, be the most massive member in NGC 3603 and, therefore, the most massive main-sequence star known in the Galaxy (Schnurr et al., 2008, MNRAS, 389, L38).
→ HD number.