An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 439
heat transfer
  تراوژ ِ گرما   
tarâvaž-e garmâ

Fr.: transfert de chaleur   

The spontaneous transportation of heat through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature.

heat; → transfer.

heat wave
  چله‌ی ِ تابستان   
celle-ye tâbestân (#)

Fr.: canicule   

Meteorology: A period of several successive days of abnormally hot and usually humid weather occurring in summer.

heat; → wave.

Celle-ye tâbestân literally "the fortieth of summer," i.e. "midsummer," from cellé pertaining to "forty (days)," from cel, cehel, → forty, + tâbestân, → summer.

heating
  گرمش   
garmeš

Fr.: chauffage   

1) The process whereby a system's temperature increases. → warming.
2) A device or system for supplying heat, especially central heating, to a building; the heat supplied.

heat; → -ing.

heaven
  آسمان   
âsmân (#)

Fr.: ciel   

The sky or Universe as seen from the Earth; the firmament. Often used in the plural.

From M.E. heven, O.E. heofon, possibly from P.Gmc. *khemina- (cf. M.L.G. heben, O.N. himinn, Goth. himins, Du. hemel, Ger. Himmel "heaven, sky"); PIE base *kem-/*kam- "to cover."

Âsmân, from Mid.Pers. âsmân "sky, heaven;" O.Pers. asman- "heaven;" Av. asman- "stone, sling-stone; heaven;" cf. Skt. áśman- "stone, rock, thunderbolt;" Gk. akmon "heaven, meteor, anvil;" Akmon was the father of Ouranos (Uranus), god of sky; Lith. akmuo "stone;" Rus. kamen; PIE base *akmon- "stone, sky." The link between the "stone" and "sky" concepts indicates that the sky had once been conceived as a stone vault by prehistoric Indo-Europeans.

heavenly body
  جسم ِ آسمانی   
jesm-e âsmâni

Fr.: corps céleste   

astronomical object.

heaven; → -ly; → body.

Heaviside layer
  لایه‌ی ِ هه‌وی‌ساید   
lâye-ye Heaviside (#)

Fr.: couche de Heaviside   

Kennelly-Heaviside layer.

English physicist Oliver Heaviside (1850-1925).

heavy
  سنگین   
sangin (#)

Fr.: lourd   

Of great weight; of great amount, quantity.

M.E. hevi; O.E. hefig, from P.Gmc. *khabigas (cf. O.N. hebig).

Sangin "heavy, weighty; stony, like stone, hard," from sang "stone, rock" (Mid.Pers. sang; O.Pers. aθanga-; Av. asenga- "stone" (related to Mod.Pers. âsmân "sky" → heaven); PIE *aken-) + -in adj. suffix.

heavy element
  بن‌پار ِ سنگین   
bonpâr-e sangin (#)

Fr.: élément lourd   

In astrophysics, any → chemical element heavier than → helium. Such elements are also inappropriately referred to as "→ metals."

heavy; → element.

heavy hydrogen
  هیدروژن ِ سنگین   
hidrožen-e sangin (#)

Fr.: hydrogène lourd   

deuterium.

heavy; → hydrogen.

heavy water
  آب ِ سنگین   
âb-e sangin (#)

Fr.: eau lourde   

Water in which the hydrogen is replaced by → deuterium. Deuterium Oxide (D2O).

heavy; → water.

Hebrew calendar
  گاهشمار ِ یهود   
gâhšomâr-e yahud (#)

Fr.: calendrier hébreu   

A → lunisolar calendar used by Jews for religious purposes. The year consists of 12 months alternating between 29 and 30 days, making a year of 354 days. In order to conform to the → solar year, a → leap month is included every third year. A month begins the day the new moon is first seen. The years are counted from the time of "creation," believed by Jewish theologians to have occurred in the year 3761 B.C. Also called → Jewish calendar.

Hebrew, from O.E., from O.Fr. Ebreu, from L. Hebraeus, from Gk. Hebraios, from Aramaic 'ebhrai, corresponding to Heb. 'ibhri "an Israelite," literally "one from the other side," in reference to the River Euphrates, or perhaps simply denoting "immigrant;" from 'ebher "region on the other or opposite side;" → calendar.

Gâhšomâr, → calendar; yahudJewish calendar.

hect-, hecto-
  هکتو-   
hekto- (#)

Fr.: hecto-   

A prefix meaning hundred (102) used in the formation of compound words.

From Fr., from Gk. hekaton "hundred."

Hekto-, loanword from Fr., as above.

height
  بلندی، بلندا، فرازا   
bolandi (#), bolandâ (#), farâzâ (#)

Fr.: hauteur   

Distance upward from a given level to a fixed point.

M.E., from O.E. hiehthu; → high + -th a suffix forming nouns of action (e.g., birth) or abstract nouns denoting quality or condition (depth; length; warmth).

Bolandi, bolandâ "height," noun forms from boland "high," variants bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Lori dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. & E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg); PIE base *bhergh- "high."
Farâzâ, noun of farâz "above, up, upon, on the top, aloft," from Mid.Pers. farâz, farâc "forward, prominent, distinguished;" Av. frānk- (adj.) "turned toward the front," fraca (adv.) "forward, forth," fraš (adv.) "forward, forth; before;" Proto-Iranian *frānk-.

heiligenschein
  سپنت‌فروغ   
sepant foruq

Fr.: auréole, heiligenschein   

A diffuse bright region surrounding the shadow that an observer's head casts on an irregular surface. It can be best observed on dewy reeds or grass. This phenomenon is reminiscent of the → glory, but without its color and regular structure.

Heiligenschein, Ger., literally "saint's shining light," from heiligen, from heilig "holy, sacred" (P.Gmc. *khailagas; M.H.G. heilec; O.H.G. heilag; Goth. hailag; O.N. heilagr; O.E. halig; E. holy) + Schein "glow, shine" (M.H.G. schinen, O.H.G. skinan, P.Gmc. *skinanan; E. shine; cf. Mod.Pers. sâyé "shadow;" Mid.Pers. sâyak "shadow;" Av. a-saya- "throwing no shadow;" Skt. chāya- "shadow;" Gk. skia "shade;" Rus. sijat' "to shine;" PIE base *skai- "bright").

Sepant foruq, from sepant "holy" (Mid.Pers. spand "holy," Spandarmat "Holy Thought; 5-th day of the month; 12-th month of the year;" from Av. spənta- "holy; beneficent," spəntô.mainyav- "coming from or belonging to the holy spirit," spəntô.təma- "holiest") + foruq "light, brightness" (related to rôšan "light; bright, luminous;" ruz "day," afruxtan "to light, kindle;" Mid.Pers. payrog "light, brightness," rošn light; bright," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-; Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining, roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna; E. light, Ger. Licht, and Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness").

heir
  ریگن‌مند، ریگنمند   
riganmand

Fr.: héritier   

A person who inherits or has a right of inheritance in the property of another following the latter's death (Dictionary.com).

heritage.

Heisenberg uncertainty principle
  پَروز ِ ناتاشتیگی ِ هایزنبرگ   
parvaz-e nâtâštigi-ye Heisenberg

Fr.: principe d'incertitude de Heisenberg   

The uncertainty in the measurement of the position and momentum of an elementary particle. The more precisely one quantity is known, the less certain the precision of the other. A similarly linked pair of quantities is the time and energy content in a volume of space.

Named after Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), the German physicist who in 1927 derived the uncertainty principle. In 1932 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics; uncertainty, from → un- "not" + → certainty; → principle.

heliacal
  هورانه   
hurâné

Fr.: héliaque   

Of or near the → Sun, especially rising and setting with the Sun. → heliacal rising, → heliacal setting.

Heliacal "pertaining to the sun," from Gk. heliakos "of the sun," from helios, → sun; cognate with Pers. hur, as below.

Hurâné "sunlike," since the star rises in the morning like the Sun, from hur "sun", variant xor; Mid.Pers. xvar "sun;" Av. hû-, hvar- "sun;" Skt. surya-; L. sol; O.H.G. sunna; Ger. Sonne; E. sun; PIE *sawel- "sun" + -âné similarity suffix.

heliacal rising
  بر‌آیش ِ هورانه   
barâyeš-e hurâné

Fr.: lever héliaque   

The first appearance of a star following a period of invisibility due to its conjunction with the Sun. → heliacal rising of Sirius.

heliacal; → rising.

heliacal rising of Sirius
  بر‌آیش ِ هورانه‌ی ِ تیشتر   
barâyeš-e hurâne-ye Tištar

Fr.: lever héliaque de Sirius   

The first rising of → Sirius at dawn shortly before → sunrise. The heliacal rising of Sirius played a significant role in ancient Egypt by heralding the annual flooding of the Nile. The event took place some 70 days after the star had been seen for the last time in the western horizon at sunset. The heliacal rising of Sirius and its association with the rebirth of the Nile was so important that it marked the start of the Egyptian calendar year. At the time, the heliacal rising occurred in early July, as seen from the ancient capital of Memphis. But due to the → precession of the equinoxes the star now reappears in early August in Egypt. The date depends on the latitude (assuming transparent skies), being later for higher latitudes. For latitude 48° it occurs on about August 19.

heliacal; → rising; → Sirius.

heliacal setting
  فروشد ِ هورانه   
forušod-e hurâné

Fr.: coucher héliaque   

The last visible setting of a star below the western horizon just after sunset entering into a conjunction with the Sun.

heliacal; → setting.

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