# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 509
 Lagrangian dynamics   توانیک ِ لاگرانژی   tavânik-e lâgrânžiFr.: dynamique lagrangienne   A reformulation of → Newtonian mechanics in which dynamical properties of the system are described in terms of generalized variables. In this approach the → generalized coordinates and → generalized velocities are treated as independent variables. Indeed applying Newton's laws to complicated problems can become a difficult task, especially if a description of the motion is needed for systems that either move in a complicated manner, or other coordinates than → Cartesian coordinates are used, or even for systems that involve several objects. Lagrangian dynamics encompasses Newton dynamics, and moreover leads to the concept of the → Hamiltonian of the system and a process by means of which it can be calculated. The Hamiltonian is a cornerstone in the field of → quantum mechanics.→ Lagrangian; → dynamics. Lagrangian formalism   دیسه‌گرایی ِ لاگرانژ   disegerâyi-ye LâgranžiFr.: formalisme lagrangien   A reformulation of classical mechanics that describes the evolution of a physical system using → variational principle The formalism does not require the concept of force, which is replaced by the → Lagrangian function. The formalism makes the description of systems more simpler. Moreover, the passage from classical description to quantum description becomes natural. Same as → Lagrangian dynamics.→ Lagrangian; → formalism. Lagrangian function   کریای ِ لاگرانژ   karyâ-ye lâgrânž (#)Fr.: Lagrangien, fonction de Lagrange   A physical quantity (denoted L), defined as the difference between the → kinetic energy (T) and the → potential energy (V) of a system: L = T - V. It is a function of → generalized coordinates, → generalized velocities, and time. Same as → Lagrangian, → kinetic potential.→ Lagrangian; → function. Lagrangian method   روش ِ لاگرانژی   raveš-e LâgrânžiFr.: méthode lagrangienne   Fluid mechanics: An approach in which a single fluid particle (→ Lagrangian particle) is followed during its motion. The physical properties of the particle, such as velocity, acceleration, and density are described at each point and at each instant. Compare with → Eulerian method.→ Lagrangian; → method. Lagrangian multiplier   بستاگر ِ لاگرانژ   bastâgar-e LagrangeFr.: multiplicateur de Lagrange   Math.: A constant that appears in the process for obtaining extrema of functions of several variables. Suppose that the function f(x,y) has to be maximized by choice of x and y subject to the constraint that g(x,y)≤ k. The solution can be found by constructing the → Lagrangian function  L(x,y,λ) = f(x,y) + λ[k - g(x,y)], where λ is the Lagrangian multiplier. Lagrangian particle   ذره‌ی ِ لاگرانژی   zarre-ye LâgrânžiFr.: particule lagrangienne   Fluid mechanics: In the → Lagrangian method, a particle that moves as though it is an element of fluid. The particle concept is an approach to solving complicated fluid dynamics problems by tracking a large number of particles representing the fluid. The particle may be thought of as the location of the center of mass of the fluid element with one or more property values.→ Lagrangian; → particle. Lagrangian point   نقطه‌های ِ لاگرانژ   noqtehâ-ye Lagrange (#)Fr.: points de Lagrange   On of the five locations in space where the → centrifugal force and the → gravitational force of two bodies (m orbiting M) neutralize each other. A third, less massive body, located at any one of these points, will be held in equilibrium with respect to the other two. Three of the points, L1, L2, and L3, lie on a line joining the centers of M and m. L1 lies between M and m, near to m, L2 lies beyond m, and L3 on the other side of M beyond the orbit. The other two points, L4 and L5, which are the most stable, lie on either side of this line, in the orbit of m around M, each of them making an equilateral triangle with M and m. L4 lies in the m's orbit approximately 60° ahead of it, while L5 lies in the m's orbit approximately 60° behind m. See also → Trojan asteroid; → Roche lobe; → equipotential surface; → horseshoe orbit.→ Lagrangian; → point. lake   دریاچه   daryâcé (#)Fr.: lac   A body of fresh or salt water entirely surrounded by land.From O.Fr. lack, from L. lacus "pond, lake," related to lacuna "hole, pit," from PIE *lak- (cf. Gk. lakkos "pit, tank, pond," O.C.S. loky "pool, cistern," O.Ir. loch "lake, pond").Daryâcé, from daryâ "sea" Mid.Pers. daryâp variant zrah; O.Pers. drayah-; Av. zrayah- "sea;" cf. Skt. jráyas- "expanse, space, flat surface" + -cé diminutive suffix, from Mid.Pers. -cak, variants -êžak (as in kanicak "little girl," sangcak "small stone," xôkcak "small pig"), also Mod.Pers. -ak. lamb   بره   barré, baré (#)Fr.: agneau   A young sheep; the meat of a young sheep.M.E., O.E.; cognate with Du. lam, Ger. Lamm, Goth. lamb; akin to Gk. elaphos "deer."Mid.Pers. warrag "lamb; sheep;" warân "ram;" Av. varən-; cf. Skt. uaran-; L. vervex (Fr. brebis); Arm. garn; Baluci garând "ram;" Lori, Laki veran "ram;" PIE *wrhen- "lamb." Lamb shift   کیب ِ لمب   kib-e LambFr.: décalage de Lamb   A tiny change in the → energy levels of the → hydrogen atom between the states 2S1/2 and 2P1/2, which creates a shift in the corresponding → spectral lines. The 2P1/2 state is slightly lower than the 2S1/2 state, contrarily to the Schrodinger's solution. The difference is explained by the interaction between → vacuum energy fluctuations and the hydrogen electron in different orbitals.Named after Willis Eugene Lamb, Jr. (1913-2008), an American physicist who discovered this effect in 1951, and won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1955 "for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum;" → shift. lambda   لامبدا   lâmbdâFr.: lambda   The eleventh letter of the Greek alphabet. In lower case, λ, it denotes → wavelength. It is also used in the → Bayer designation system to identify a specific star in a → constellation. See also → lambda point. In upper case, Λ, it represents the → cosmological constant or → dark energy.From Phoenician lamedh. Lambda Bootis star   ستاره‌ی ِ لامبدا گاوران   setâre-ye lâmbda GâvrânFr.: étoile lambda du Bouvier   The prototype of a small class of stars (A-F types) which have weak metallic lines (indicating that they are depleted in metals heavier than Si, but with solar abundances of C, N, O, and S). Moreover, they have moderately large rotational velocities and small space velocities. Lambda Boo stars may be pre-main-sequence objects, or they may be main sequence stars that formed from gas whose metal atoms had been absorbed by interstellar dust.Named after the prototype, the star → Lambda (λ) of constellation → Bootes; → star. lambda cold dark matter model   مدل ِ لامبدا-ماده‌ی-سرد ِ- تاریک   model-e lâmbdâ-mâde-ye-sard-e-târikFr.: modèle ΛCDM   The → standard model of → Big Bang that incorporates both → dark matter and → dark energy. See also → cold dark matter (CDM).→ lambda, → cosmological constant; → cold; → dark; → matter; → model. Lambda Orionis   لامبدا-شکارگر، ~-اریون   Lâmbdâ-Šekârgar, ~-OryonFr.: Lambda (λ) Orionis   Same as → Meissa.Lambda (λ), a Greek letter used in the → Bayer designation of star names. lambda point   نقطه‌ی ِ لامبدا   noqte-ye lâmbdâFr.: point lambda   The temperature (roughly 2.17 K) at which → liquid helium (→ helium I) becomes → superfluid (→ helium II).The name was given by the Dutch physicist Willem Hendrik Keesom (1876-1956), who discovered the behavior of helium near this transition point and successfully solidified helium in 1926 (under an external pressure of 25 atmospheres). The name was originally suggested by Paul Ehrenfest (1880-1933), who was inspired by the shape of the → specific heat curve, which resembles the Gk. letter → lambda; → point. lambert   لامبرت   lambertFr.: lambert   A centimeter-gram-second (cgs) unit of luminance (or brightness) equal to 1/π candle per square centimeter. Physically, the lambert is the luminance of a perfectly diffusing white surface receiving an illuminance of 1 lumen per square centimeter.Johann Heinrich Lambert (1728-1777), German scientist and mathematician; → law. Lambert's cosine law   قانون ِ کوسینوس ِ لامبرت   qânun-e cosinus-e LambertFr.: loi en cosinus de Lambert   The intensity of the light emanating in any given direction from a perfectly diffusing surface is proportional to the cosine of the angle between the direction and the normal to the surface. Also called → Lambert's law.→ lambert; → cosine; → law. Lambert's law   قانون ِ لامبرت   qânun-e LambertFr.: loi de Lambert   Same as → Lambert's cosine law.→ lambert; → law. Lambertian disk   گرده‌ی ِ لامبرتی، دیسک ِ ~   gerde-ye Lamberti, disk-e ~Fr.: disque lambertien   A → planetary or → satellite disk with → Lambertian surface. Such a disk has the same → surface brightness at all angles.→ lambert; → disk. Lambertian surface   رویه‌ی ِ لامبرتی   ruye-ye LambertiFr.: surface lambertienne   A surface whose → luminous intensity obeys → Lambert's cosine law. Such a source has a → reflectance that is uniform across its surface and uniformly emits in all directions from all its points. It appears equally bright from all viewing directions. Lambertian surface is a very useful concept for the approximation of radiant power transfer.→ lambert; → surface.