An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 473
Local Group
  گروه ِ محلی   
goruh-e mahali (#)

Fr.: Groupe local   

A small cluster of about 40 galaxies to which our Milky Way Galaxy belongs. The Local Group occupies a volume of space nearly 10 million light-years across centered somewhere between the → Andromeda Galaxy (M31) and the Milky Way, which are the dominant galaxies of the group; Andromeda being the principal member. Both of these galaxies exhibit spiral structures, and each is attended by a large family of satellite → dwarf galaxies. The Local Group also includes a third spiral galaxy known as → Triangulum (M33), which is bound to Andromeda. The remaining members span a range of → Hubble classification types from dwarf spheroidal to Irr to Sb and Sc and cover a factor of 10 in → metallicity. The total mass of the Local Group is estimated to be about 2 x 1012 solar masses, although this value is still uncertain to within a factor of about 2. The velocities of the individual galaxies of the Local Group are not particularly high. Therefore no member is believed to be able to escape the group, which is thus considered to be gravitationally → bound. Another remarkable member of the Group is → IC 10.

local; → group.

local inertial frame
  چارچوب ِ لختی‌ناک ِ محلی، ~ لختی‌مند ِ ~   
cârcub-e laxtnâk-e mahali, ~ laxtimand-e ~

Fr.: référentiel inertiel local   

A coordinate system or frame of reference defined in the vicinity of the Earth in which Newton's first law of motion is valid; that is, a non-rotating and non-accelerating reference frame.

local; → inertial; → time.

local interstellar cloud
  ابر ِ اندر-اختری ِ محلی   
abr-e andar-axtari-ye mahali

Fr.: nuage interstellaire local   

An → interstellar cloud that surrounds the → heliosphere.

local; → interstellar; → cloud.

local Lorentz invariance
  ناورتایی ِ لورنتز ِ محلی   
nâvartâyi-ye Lorentz-e mahali

Fr.: invariance de Lorentz locale   

Einstein equivalence principle.

local; → Lorentz; → invariance.

local maximum
  بیشینه‌ی ِ محلی   
bišine-ye mahali

Fr.: maximum local   

The point x = c in an → interval where the value of the → function  f(y) is larger than the value anywhere else in that interval. In other words, f(c) ≥ f(x) for all x in the interval.

local; → maximum.

local meridian
  نیمروزان ِ محلی   
nimruzân-e mahali

Fr.: méridien local   

The meridian through any particular place, serving as the reference for local time, in contrast to the Greenwich meridian.

local; → meridian.

local minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ محلی   
kamine-ye mahali

Fr.: minimum local   

The point x = c in an → interval where the value of the → function  f(y) is smaller than the value anywhere else in that interval. In other words, f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in the interval.

local; → minimum.

local oscillator
  نوشگر ِ محلی   
navešgar-e mahali (#)

Fr.: oscillateur local   

The oscillator in a heterodyne or superheterodyne radio receiver which produces the radio frequency oscillations with which the received wave is combined.

local; → oscillator.

local position invariance
  ناورتایی ِ نهش ِ محلی   
nâvartâyi-ye neheš-e mahali

Fr.: invariance de position locale   

Einstein equivalence principle.

local; → position; → invariance.

local sidereal time
  زمان ِ اختری ِ محلی   
zamân-e axtari-ye mahali

Fr.: temps sidéral local   

Local time measured by the apparent motion of the stars. It is the most useful form of sidereal time since it gives the right ascension of a transiting celestial object at a given location.

local; → sidereal; → time.

Local Spur
  شخاک ِ محلی   
šaxâk-e mahali

Fr.: bras local   

Same as → Orion Arm.

local; → → spur.

local standard of rest
  استانده‌ی ِ محلی ِ آرم   
estânde-ye mahali-ye âram

Fr.: standard local de repos   

A frame of reference that turns around the Galactic center at a velocity and a distance which are the mean values for the stars in the solar neighborhood. In this reference system the stars belonging to the solar neighborhood are statistically at rest. The orbital velocity of the Local Standard of Rest around the Galaxy is about 220 km/sec.

local; → standard; → rest.

Local Supercluster
  ا َبَرخوشه‌ی ِ محلی   
abarxuše-ye mahali (#)

Fr.: superamas local   

The supercluster to which the Local Group belongs. It is composed of some 100 clusters of galaxies, with the Virgo cluster of galaxies at its center.

local; → supercluster.

local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)
  ترازمندی ِ گرماتوانیک ِ محلی   
tarâzmandi-ye garmâtavânik-e mahali

Fr.: équilibre thermodynamique local   

The assumption that all distribution functions characterizing the material and its interaction with the radiation field at a point in the star are given by → thermodynamic equilibrium relations at local values of the temperature and density.

local; → thermodynamic; → equilibrium.

local time
  زمان ِ محلی   
zamân-e mahali (#)

Fr.: temps local   

Time based upon the local meridian as reference, in contrast to that of the time zone within which the place is located, or the Greenwich time.

local; → time.

local Universe
  گیتی ِ محلی   
giti-ye mahali

Fr.: Univers local   

A not well-defined concept describing a region of radius within ~ 20 → Mpc centered on the → Local Group of galaxies, corresponding to → redshift z ≤ 0.01. See also the → Local Volume.

local; → Universe.

Local Volume (LV)
  گنج ِ محلی   
gonj-e mahali

Fr.: Volume local   

A sphere of radius ~ 10 Mpc centered on the → Local Group of galaxies. The Local Volume includes at least 500 known galaxies, many of which congregate in well-known groups like the Local Group, the relatively loose → Sculptor Group, and the more compact Centaurus A group. As of 2010, the latest catalog of LV galaxies was presented by Karachentsev et al. (2004, AJ 127, 2031). About 85% of the LV population are → dwarf galaxies which contribute to about 4% to the local optical luminosity density and roughly to 10-15% to the total H I mass density.

local; → volume.

localization
  محل‌گیری   
mahal giri (#)

Fr.: localisation   

The condition of the wave-function of an electron if it is confined to a small region of a large system rather than being extended through the system.

Verbal noun of → localize.

localize
  ۱) محل‌دادن؛ ۲) محل‌گرفتن   
1) mahal dâdan; 2) mahal gereftan

Fr.: 1) localise; 2) se localiser   

1) To confine, restrict, or attribute to a particular locality.
2) To become local, especially to become fixed in one area or part.

From → local + → -ize

lock
  ۱) قفل؛ ۲) قفل کردن، ~ شدن   
1) qofl (#); 2) qofl kardan, ~ šodan

Fr.: 1) vérouille; 2) vérouiller, se vérouiller   

1) A device fitted to a gate, door, drawer, lid, etc, to keep it firmly closed and often to prevent access by unauthorized persons.
2) To fasten (a door, gate, etc) or (of a door, etc) to become fastened with a lock, bolt, etc, so as to prevent entry or exit (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.E. loc "fastening, bar;" cognate with M.L.G. lok, O.H.G. loh "dungeon," Ger. Loch "opening, hole," O.N. lok "a cover, lid;" akin to O.E. lucan "to shut."

Qofl, loan from Ar.

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