An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 464
lunar horizon glow
  فروغ ِ افق ِ ماه   
foruq-e ofoq-e mâh

Fr.: éclat de l'horizon lunaire   

A very bright crescent of light glowing on the lunar horizon at → sunset or just before → sunrise. It has been suggested that → lunar dust is transported electrically high into sky, allowing sunlight to scatter and create glows. On the day side of the → Moon, solar → ultraviolet radiation is strong enough to kick → electrons from → dust grains in the lunar soil. Removal of electrons, which have a negative electric charge, leaves the dust with a positive electric charge. Since like charges repel, the positively charged dust particles get pushed away from each other, and the only direction not blocked by more dust is up. In the 1960s, Surveyor probes filmed a glowing cloud floating just above the lunar surface during sunrise. Later, Apollo 17 astronaut Gene Cernan, while orbiting the Moon, recorded a similar phenomenon at the sharp line where lunar day meets night, called the → terminator.

lunar; → horizon; → glow.

lunar mansion
  منزل ِ ماه   
manzel-e mâh (#)

Fr.: maison lunaire   

One of the 28 divisions of the sky, identified by the prominent stars in them, that the Moon passes through during its monthly cycle, as used in ancient Chinese, Hindu, and Arab astronomy/astrology.

From O.Fr. mansion, from L. mansionem (nom. mansio) "a staying, a remaining, night quarters, station," from manere "to stay, abide" (Fr. maison, ménage; E. manor, mansion, permanent); cf. Pers. mân "house, home," mândan "to remain, stay, relinquish, leave;" Mid.Pers. mândan "to remain, stay;" O.Pers. mān- "to remain, dwell;" Av. man- "to remain, dwell; to wait;" Gk. menein "to remain;" PIE base *men- "to remain, wait for."

Manzel, from Ar. "dwelling, habitation, mansion."

lunar mare
   \"دریای ِ ماه\"   
"daryâ-ye mâh" (#)

Fr.: mer lunaire   

An area on the surface of the → Moon that appears darker and smoother than its surroundings. Once thought to be seas, lunar maria are now known to be basaltic basins created by volcanic → lava floods; plural maria.

lunar; L. mare "sea," plural form maria, because Galileo thought the dark featureless areas on the Moon were → seas.

lunar maria
   \"دریاهای ِ ماه\"   
"daryâhâ-ye mâh" (#)

Fr.: mer lunaire   

Plural of → lunar mare.

lunar mare.

lunar mass
  جرم ِ ماه، ~ مانگ   
jerm-e mâh (#), ~ mâng

Fr.: masse lunaire, masse de la Lune   

The mass of the → Moon, which is 7.35 x 1022 kg, about 1/81 of the Earth's mass.

lunar; → mass.

lunar month
  ماه ِ مانگی   
mâh-e mângi

Fr.: mois lunaire   

The average time between successive new or full moons. Also called → synodic month, → lunation.

lunar; → month.

lunar node
  گره، گوزهر   
gereh (#), gowzahr (#)

Fr.: nœud   

One of the two points of intersection of the orbit of the Moon with the plane of → ecliptic. Indeed, the lunar orbit is tilted by about 5 degrees relative to the ecliptic. The revolution period of a lunar node in ecliptic is 18.61 years. Due to perturbation by the Sun, the lunar nodes slowly regress westward by 19.3° per year. See also → ascending node; → descending node.

lunar; → node.

Gereh, → node; gowzahri, related to gowzahr, → draconic month.

lunar orbit node
  گره ِ مداری ِ ماه   
gereh-e madâri-ye mâh

Fr.: nœud de l'orbite lunaire   

Same as → lunar node.

lunar; → orbit; → node.

lunar parallax
  دیدگشت ِ مانگی   
didgašt-e mângi

Fr.: parallaxe lunaire   

The apparent shift in the → Moon's position relative to the background stars when observed from different places on Earth. The first parallax determination was for the Moon, by Hipparchus (150 B.C.). He determined that one-fifth of the Sun's angular diameter corresponded to the lunar parallax between Hellespont and Alexandria.

lunar; → parallax.

lunar phase
  سیمای ِ ماه   
simâ-ye mâh (#)

Fr.: phase de la lune   

One of the various changes in the apparent shape of the Moon, because as the Moon orbits the Earth different amounts of its illuminated part are facing us. The phases of the Moon include: the → new moon, → waxing crescent, → first quarter, → waxing gibbous, → full moon, → waning gibbous, → last quarter, → waning crescent, and → new moon again.

lunar; → phase.

lunar probe
  گمانه‌ی ِ مانگی   
gomâne-ye mângi

Fr.: sonde lunaire   

A probe for exploring and reporting on conditions on or about the Moon.

lunar; → probe.

lunar recession
  دورشد ِ ماه   
duršd-e mâh

Fr.: éloignement de la lune   

The process whereby the → Moon gradually moves out into a slightly larger orbit. The → gravitational attraction of the Moon on the → Earth creates two ocean → tidal bulges on the opposite sides of our planet. The Earth rotates faster than the Moon revolves about the Earth. Therefore, the tidal bulge facing the Moon advances the Moon with respect to the line joining the centers of the Earth and the Moon. The Moon's gravity pulls on the bulge and slows down the → Earth's rotation. As a result, the Earth loses → angular momentum and the days on Earth are gradually increasing by 2.3 milliseconds per century. Since the angular momentum in the → Earth-Moon system is conserved, the Earth must impart the loss in its own angular momentum to the Moon's orbit. Hence, the Moon is being forced into a slightly larger orbit which means it is receding from the Earth. However, eventually this process will come to an end. This is because the Earth's own rotation rate will match the Moon's orbital rate, and it will therefore no longer impart any angular momentum to it. In this case, the planet and the Moon are said to be tidally locked (→ tidal locking). This is a stable situation because it minimises the energy loss due to friction of the system. Long ago, the Moon's own rotation became equal to its orbital period about the Earth and so we only see one side of the Moon. This is known as → synchronous rotation and it is quite common in the solar system. The Moon's average distance from Earth in increasing by 3.8 cm per year. Such a precise value is possible due to the Apollo laser reflectors which the astronauts left behind during the lunar landing missions (Apollo 11, 14, and 15). Eventually, the Moon's distance will increase so much that it will be to far away to produce total eclipses of the Sun.

lunar; → recession.

lunar regolith
  سنگپوش ِ ماه، ~ مانگی   
sangpuš-e mâh, ~ mângi

Fr.: régolithe lunaire   

The loose, fragmentary material on the Moon's surface. The lunar regolith has resulted from → meteorite collisions all along the Moon's history. It is the → debris thrown out of the → impact craters. The composition of the lunar regolith varies from place to place depending on the rock types impacted. Generally, the older the surface, the thicker the regolith. Regolith on young → maria may be only 2 meters thick; whereas, it is perhaps 20 meters thick in the older → highlands.

lunar; → regolith.

lunar terra
   \"خشکی ِ ماه\"   
"xoški-ye mâh"

Fr.: terre   

lunar highland.

lunar; terra "earth," → terrestrial.

lunar year
  سال ِ مانگی   
sâl-e mângi

Fr.: année lunaire   

A year based solely on the Moon's motion, containing 12 synodic months, each of 29.5306 days, that is a year of 354.3672 days. Used by Hebrews, Babylonians, Greeks, and Arabs.

lunar; → year.

lunarite
  لوناریت   
lunârit (#)

Fr.: lunarite   

The rocks that make up the bright portions of the lunar surface.

From → lunar + ite a suffix used to form the names of minerals, such as hematite and malachite.

lunation
  مَهایند   
mahâyand

Fr.: lunaison   

The interval of a complete lunar cycle, between one new Moon and the next, that is 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes, and 2.8 seconds. or 29.5306 days. → synodic month.

M.E. lunacyon, from M.L. lunation-.

Mahâyand, literally "coming, arrival of the Moon," from mâhmoon + âyand "coming, arrival," present stem of âmadan "to come"; O.Pers. aitiy "goes;" Av. ay- "to go, to come," aēiti "goes;" Skt. e- "to come near," eti "arrival;" Gk ion " going," neut. pr.p. of ienai "to go;" L. ire "to go;" Goth. iddja "went," Lith. eiti "to go;" Rus. idti "to go;" from PIE base *ei- "to go, to walk."

lunisolar calendar
  گاهشمار ِ مانگی-خورشیدی   
gâhšomâr-e mângi-xoršidi

Fr.: calendrier luni-solaire   

A calendar in which the → solar year consists of 12 or 13 lunar → synodic months. Lunisolar calendars are → solar calendars, but use the lunar month as the basic unit rather than the → solar day. The 13th → embolismic month is to keep lunar and solar cycles in pace with each other. The reason is that the solar year has about 365 days, but 12 lunar months amount to 354 days, which is about 11 days short of a year. The most well-known lunisolar calendars are the Babylonian, Hebrew, and Chinese.

From luni-, from → lunar, + → solar; → calendar.

lunisolar precession
  پیشایان ِ مانگی-خورشیدی   
pišâyân-e mângi-xorši

Fr.: précession lunisolaire   

precession of the equator.

From luni-, from → lunar, + → solar; → precession.

Lupus
  گرگ   
Gorg (#)

Fr.: Loup   

The Wolf. A constellation in the southern hemisphere, located at about 15h right ascension, 45° south declination. Abbreviation: Lup; genitive: Lupi.

L. lupus "wolf," PIE *wlqwos/*lukwos; cf. Pers. gorg, as below; Gk. lykos; Albanian ulk; O.C.S. vluku; Rus. volcica; Lith. vilkas "wolf;" P.Gmc. *wulfaz (cf. O.S. wulf, O.N. ulfr, O.Fris., Du., O.H.G., Ger., E. wolf).

Gorg "wolf," Aftari dialect varg, M.Pers. gurg, O.Pers. Varkana- "Hyrcania," district southeast of the Caspian Sea, literally "wolf-land," today Iran Gorgân; Khotanese birgga-; Sogdian wyrky; Av. vəhrka-; Skt. vrka-.

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