An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 458
Lyman alpha forest
  جنگل ِ لایمن-‌آلفا   
jangal-e Lyman-alpha (#)

Fr.: forêt Lyman alpha   

The appearance of many differentially → redshiftedLyman alpha lines in → absorption in a → quasar's → spectrum, caused by intervening → hydrogen clouds along our → line of sight to the quasar.

Lyman; → forest.

Lyman alpha line
  خط ِ لایمن-آلفا، تان ِ ~ ~   
xatt-e Lyman-âlfâ (#), tân-e ~ ~

Fr.: raie Lyman alpha   

The spectral line in the → Lyman series which is associated with the → atomic transition between → energy levels n = 2 and n = 1. The corresponding wavelength is 1216 Å in the → far ultraviolet.

Lyman; → line.

Lyman alpha nebula
  میغ ِ لایمن-آلفا   
miq-e Lyman-âlfâ

Fr.: nébuleuse Lyman alpha   

A huge gaseous nebula (≥ 50 kpc) lying at high → redshifts (z ~ 2-6) and strongly emitting radiation due to the → Lyman alpha line (luminosities of  ≥ 1043 erg s-1) of hydrogen gas. Also called Lyman alpha blobs, they are thought to lie in massive (M ~ 1013 solar masses) → dark matter halos, which would subsequently evolve into those typical of rich → galactic clusters.

Lyman; → nebula.

Lyman band
  باند ِ لایمن   
bând-e Lyman

Fr.: bande de Lyman   

A sequence of → permitted transitions in the → ultraviolet from an → excited state (B) of the → molecular hydrogen (H2) to the electronic → ground state, with ΔE > 11.2 eV, λ < 1108Å (first → band head). When a hydrogen molecule absorbs such a photon, it undergoes a transition from the ground electronic state to the excited state (B). The following rapid → decay creates an → absorption band in that wavelength range. See also → Werner band. → Lyman-Werner photon.

Lyman (Th. Lyman, 1906, Astrophys. J. 23, 181); → band.

Lyman break
  بُره‌ی ِ لایمن   
bore-ye Lyman

Fr.: coupure de Lyman   

The dividing point in a galaxy's spectrum at wavelengths shorter than the → Lyman limit. Galaxies contain large amounts of → neutral hydrogen which is very effective at absorbing radiation shortward of 912 Å. Hence galaxies are virtually dark at these wavelengths.

Lyman; → break.

Lyman break galaxy
  کهکشان با بُره‌ی ِ لایمن   
kahkešân bâ bore-ye Lyman

Fr.: galaxie de la coupure de Lyman   

A star-forming galaxy at → high redshift affected by the → Lyman break. Such a galaxy is detected in the red (R, → photometric band) but not in the blue (U and B bands). At those high redshfits (above 2.5), the → Lyman limit at 912 Å is shifted between the U and B bands.

Lyman; → break; → galaxy.

Lyman continuum
  پیوستار ِ لایمن   
peyvastâr-e Lyman (#)

Fr.: continuum de Lyman   

A continuous range of wavelengths in the spectrum of hydrogen at wavelengths less than the → Lyman limit. The Lyman continuum results from transitions between the → ground state of hydrogen and → excited states in which the single electron is freed from the atom by photons having an energy of 13.6 eV or higher.

Lyman; → continuum.

Lyman continuum escape
  گریز ِ پیوستار ِ لایمن   
goriz-e peyvastâr-e Lyman

Fr.: échappement du continuum de Lyman   

The process whereby → Lyman continuum photons produced by → massive stars escape from a galaxy without being absorbed by interstellar material. Some observations indicate that the Lyman continuum escape fraction evolves with → redshift.

Lyman; → continuum; → escape.

Lyman ghost
  پرهیب ِ لایمن   
parhib-e Lyman (#)

Fr.: image fantôme de Lyman   

In spectroscopy, a false image of a spectral line formed by irregularities in the ruling of diffraction gratings.

Lyman, → ghost.

Lyman limit
  حد ِ لایمن   
hadd-e Lyman

Fr.: limite de Lyman   

The short-wavelength end of the hydrogen Lyman series, at 912 Å. Also called → Lyman continuum. It corresponds to the energy (13.6 eV) required for an electron in the hydrogen ground state to jump completely out of the atom, leaving the atom ionized.

Lyman; → limit.

Lyman series
  سری ِ لایمن   
seri-ye Lyman (#)

Fr.: séries de Lyman   

A series of lines in the spectrum of hydrogen, emitted when electrons jump from outer orbits to the first orbit. The Lyman series lies entirely within the ultraviolet region. The brightest lines are Lyman-alpha at 1216 Å, Lyman-beta at 1026 Å, and Lyman-gamma at 972 Å.

Lyman; → series.

Lyman-Werner photon
  فوتون ِ لایمن-ورنر   
foton-e Lyman-Werner

Fr.: photon de Lyman-Werner   

An → ultraviolet photon with an energy between 11.2 and 13.6 eV, corresponding to the energy range in which the Lyman and Werner absorption bands of → molecular hydrogen (H2) are found (→ Lyman band, → Werner band). The first generation of stars produces a background of Lyman-Werner radiation which can → photodissociate molecular hydrogen, the key → cooling agent in metal free gas below 104 K. In doing so, the Lyman-Werner radiation field delays the collapse of gaseous clouds, and thus star formation. After more massive → dark matter clouds are assembled, atomic line cooling becomes effective and H2 can begin to shield itself from Lyman-Werner radiation.

Lyman; → Werner band; → photon.

Siyâhguš (#)

Fr.: Lynx   

The Lynx. A faint → constellation in the northern hemisphere that lies between → Auriga to the west and → Ursa Major to the east, at about 8h right ascension, 45° north declination. Abbreviation: Lyn; genitive: Lyncis.

From L. lynx, from Gk. lynx, probably from PIE *leuk-, → light, in reference to its gleaming eyes or its ability to see in the dark (cf. Lith. luzzis, O.H.G. luhs, Ger. Luchs, O.E. lox, Du. los, Swed. lo "lynx").

Siyâhguš "lynx," literally "black ear," from siyâh "black," from Mid.Pers. siyâ, siyâk, siyâvah "black," Av. sâma-, sayâva- "black, dark," cf. Skt. syama-, syava- "black, brown," Gk. skia "shadow" + guš, → ear.

Lyot division
  شکاف ِ لی‌یو   
šekâf-e Liyot (#)

Fr.: division de Lyot   

In Saturn's rings, the gap between rings B and C.

Named after Bernard Lyot (1897-1952), French astronomer who discovered the division. He was also a distinguished solar observer and invented (1930) the → coronagraph; → division.

Lyot filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ لی‌یو   
pâlâye-ye Lyot (#)

Fr.: filtre de Lyot   

A type of narrow-band filter consisting of a series of birefringent crystals and polarizers invented by the French astronomer Bernard Lyot (1897-1952) for isolating and observing significant wavelengths of solar light.

Lyot division; → filter.

Cang (#)

Fr.: Lyre   

The Lyre. A small, bright constellation in the northern hemisphere at about 19h right ascension, 40° declination. The brightest star in Lyra is → Vega.

L. lyra, from Gk. lyra, a foreign word of uncertain origin.

Cang "harp," frpm Mid.Pers. cang "harp."

Cangiyân (#)

Fr.: Lyrides   

A meteor shower that occurs between 18 and 24 April. Its radiant is in the constellation → Lyra.

Lyra + → -ids.

Lysithea (Jupiter X)
Lusitea (#)

Fr.: Lysithéa   

The eleventh of Jupiter's known satellites; it is 36 km across and orbits Jupiter at a distance of about 11,720,000 km with a period of 259 days. It was discovered by S. Nicholson in 1938.

Lysithea was a daughter of Oceanus and one of Zeus' lovers.

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