An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 488
lunisolar calendar
  گاهشمار ِ مانگی-خورشیدی   
gâhšomâr-e mângi-xoršidi

Fr.: calendrier luni-solaire   

A calendar in which the → solar year consists of 12 or 13 lunar → synodic months. Lunisolar calendars are → solar calendars, but use the lunar month as the basic unit rather than the → solar day. The 13th → embolismic month is to keep lunar and solar cycles in pace with each other. The reason is that the solar year has about 365 days, but 12 lunar months amount to 354 days, which is about 11 days short of a year. The most well-known lunisolar calendars are the Babylonian, Hebrew, and Chinese.

From luni-, from → lunar, + → solar; → calendar.

lunisolar precession
  پیشایان ِ مانگی-خورشیدی   
pišâyân-e mângi-xorši

Fr.: précession lunisolaire   

precession of the equator.

From luni-, from → lunar, + → solar; → precession.

Lupus
  گرگ   
Gorg (#)

Fr.: Loup   

The Wolf. A constellation in the southern hemisphere, located at about 15h right ascension, 45° south declination. Abbreviation: Lup; genitive: Lupi.

L. lupus "wolf," PIE *wlqwos/*lukwos; cf. Pers. gorg, as below; Gk. lykos; Albanian ulk; O.C.S. vluku; Rus. volcica; Lith. vilkas "wolf;" P.Gmc. *wulfaz (cf. O.S. wulf, O.N. ulfr, O.Fris., Du., O.H.G., Ger., E. wolf).

Gorg "wolf," Aftari dialect varg, M.Pers. gurg, O.Pers. Varkana- "Hyrcania," district southeast of the Caspian Sea, literally "wolf-land," today Iran Gorgân; Khotanese birgga-; Sogdian wyrky; Av. vəhrka-; Skt. vrka-.

Lupus dark cloud
  ابر ِ تاریک ِ گرگ   
abr-e târik-e Gorg

Fr.: nuage sombre du Loup   

Any of the several → dark clouds lying in the direction of the constellation → Lupus between → Galactic longitudes 334° < l < 352° and → Galactic latitudes +5° < b < +25°. In terms of angular extent the whole group is one of the largest low-mass star forming complexes on the sky, and it also contains one of the richest associations of → T Tauri stars. An average distance of about 150 pc places it among the nearest star forming regions, together with those in Corona Australis, Ophiuchus, Taurus-Auriga, and Chamaeleon (Comeron, 2008, in Handbook of Star Forming Regions Vol. II, PASP, Reipurth, ed.).

Lupus; → dark; → cloud.

Lupus Loop
  گردال ِ گرگ   
gerdâl-e gorg

Fr.: Boucle du Loup   

An large nonthermal radio source in the constellation → Lupus, identified as a very old supernova remnant. It is also an extended source of soft X-rays.

Lupus; → loop.

Lutetia
  ۲۱ لوتسیا   
21 Lutetia

Fr.: 21 Lutetia, 21 Lutèce   

A large → main belt  → asteroid that belongs to a sub-type of hydrated → M-type asteroids. It is an elongated body with its longest side around 130 km. The → Rosetta space probe flew by Lutetia and gathered data on it in 2008. Lutetia was discovered on November 15, 1852, by Hermann Goldschmidt (1802-1866) from the balcony of his apartment in Paris.

Named → Lutetia from L. Lutetia Parisiorum, literally "Parisian swamps," the Gallo-Roman city that was the ancestor of present-day Paris.

Lutz-Kelker bias
  ورک ِ لوتز-کلکر   
varak-e Lutz-Kelker

Fr.: biais de Lutz-Kelker   

A systematic error that can be introduced when → trigonometric parallaxes are used to calibrate a luminosity system. The bias arises when stars are selected by a lower limit in the observed parallax values. This favors the stars for which the measured parallax result is relatively too large.

Named after Th. Lutz & D.H. E. Kelker, 1973, PASP 85, 573; → bias.

lux
  لوکس   
luks (#)

Fr.: lux   

SI unit of illumination equal to a luminous flux of 1 lumen per square meter. SI unit of luminous incidence or illuminance, equal to 1 lumen per square meter.

From Gk. lux "light," → lumen.

Lyman
  لایمن   
Lyman

Fr.: Lyman   

Theodore Lyman (1874-1954), an American physicist who was a pioneer in studying the spectroscopy of the → extreme ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic radiation.
Lyman alpha blob, → Lyman alpha forest, → Lyman alpha line, → Lyman alpha nebula , → Lyman band, → Lyman break, → Lyman break galaxy, → Lyman continuum, → Lyman continuum escape, → Lyman limit, → Lyman ghost, → Lyman series, → Lyman-Werner photon.

Named for Th. Lyman, as above.

Lyman alpha blob (LAB)
  ژیگ ِ لایمن-آلفا   
žig-e Lyman-alpha

Fr.:   

A gigantic cloud of → hydrogen hydrogen gas emitting the → Lyman alpha line identified in → high redshift, → narrow band → surveys. LABs can span hundreds of thousands of → light-years that is larger than galaxies. Normally, Lyman alpha emission is in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum, but Lyman alpha blobs are so distant, their light is redshifted to (longer) optical wavelengths. The most important questions in LAB studies remain unanswered: how are they formed and what maintains their power? One of the largest LABs known is SSA22-LAB-01 (z = 3.1). Embedded in the core of a huge → cluster of galaxies in the early stages of formation, it was the very first such object to be discovered (in 2000) and is located so far away that its light has taken about 11.5 billion years to reach us. Recent observations of SSA22-LAB-01 using → ALMA shows two galaxies at the core of this object and they are undergoing a burst of → star formation that is lighting up their surroundings. These large galaxies are in turn at the centre of a swarm of smaller ones in what appears to be an early phase in the formation of a massive cluster of galaxies (see J. E. Geach et al. 2016, arXiv:1608.02941).

Lyman; → alpha; → blob.

Lyman alpha forest
  جنگل ِ لایمن-‌آلفا   
jangal-e Lyman-alpha (#)

Fr.: forêt Lyman alpha   

The appearance of many differentially → redshiftedLyman alpha lines in → absorption in a → quasar's → spectrum, caused by intervening → hydrogen clouds along our → line of sight to the quasar.

Lyman; → forest.

Lyman alpha line
  خط ِ لایمن-آلفا، تان ِ ~ ~   
xatt-e Lyman-âlfâ (#), tân-e ~ ~

Fr.: raie Lyman alpha   

The spectral line in the → Lyman series which is associated with the → atomic transition between → energy levels n = 2 and n = 1. The corresponding wavelength is 1216 Å in the → far ultraviolet.

Lyman; → line.

Lyman alpha nebula
  میغ ِ لایمن-آلفا   
miq-e Lyman-âlfâ

Fr.: nébuleuse Lyman alpha   

A huge gaseous nebula (≥ 50 kpc) lying at high → redshifts (z ~ 2-6) and strongly emitting radiation due to the → Lyman alpha line (luminosities of  ≥ 1043 erg s-1) of hydrogen gas. Also called Lyman alpha blobs, they are thought to lie in massive (M ~ 1013 solar masses) → dark matter halos, which would subsequently evolve into those typical of rich → galactic clusters.

Lyman; → nebula.

Lyman band
  باند ِ لایمن   
bând-e Lyman

Fr.: bande de Lyman   

A sequence of → permitted transitions in the → ultraviolet from an → excited state (B) of the → molecular hydrogen (H2) to the electronic → ground state, with ΔE > 11.2 eV, λ < 1108Å (first → band head). When a hydrogen molecule absorbs such a photon, it undergoes a transition from the ground electronic state to the excited state (B). The following rapid → decay creates an → absorption band in that wavelength range. See also → Werner band. → Lyman-Werner photon.

Lyman (Th. Lyman, 1906, Astrophys. J. 23, 181); → band.

Lyman break
  بُره‌ی ِ لایمن   
bore-ye Lyman

Fr.: coupure de Lyman   

The dividing point in a galaxy's spectrum at wavelengths shorter than the → Lyman limit. Galaxies contain large amounts of → neutral hydrogen which is very effective at absorbing radiation shortward of 912 Å. Hence galaxies are virtually dark at these wavelengths.

Lyman; → break.

Lyman break galaxy
  کهکشان با بُره‌ی ِ لایمن   
kahkešân bâ bore-ye Lyman

Fr.: galaxie de la coupure de Lyman   

A star-forming galaxy at → high redshift affected by the → Lyman break. Such a galaxy is detected in the red (R, → photometric band) but not in the blue (U and B bands). At those high redshfits (above 2.5), the → Lyman limit at 912 Å is shifted between the U and B bands.

Lyman; → break; → galaxy.

Lyman continuum
  پیوستار ِ لایمن   
peyvastâr-e Lyman (#)

Fr.: continuum de Lyman   

A continuous range of wavelengths in the spectrum of hydrogen at wavelengths less than the → Lyman limit. The Lyman continuum results from transitions between the → ground state of hydrogen and → excited states in which the single electron is freed from the atom by photons having an energy of 13.6 eV or higher.

Lyman; → continuum.

Lyman continuum escape
  گریز ِ پیوستار ِ لایمن   
goriz-e peyvastâr-e Lyman

Fr.: échappement du continuum de Lyman   

The process whereby → Lyman continuum photons produced by → massive stars escape from a galaxy without being absorbed by interstellar material. Some observations indicate that the Lyman continuum escape fraction evolves with → redshift.

Lyman; → continuum; → escape.

Lyman ghost
  پرهیب ِ لایمن   
parhib-e Lyman (#)

Fr.: image fantôme de Lyman   

In spectroscopy, a false image of a spectral line formed by irregularities in the ruling of diffraction gratings.

Lyman, → ghost.

Lyman limit
  حد ِ لایمن   
hadd-e Lyman

Fr.: limite de Lyman   

The short-wavelength end of the hydrogen Lyman series, at 912 Å. Also called → Lyman continuum. It corresponds to the energy (13.6 eV) required for an electron in the hydrogen ground state to jump completely out of the atom, leaving the atom ionized.

Lyman; → limit.

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