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master mastar (#) Fr.: maître 1) A person with the ability or power to use, control, or dispose of something. M.E. maistre, maister, from O.E. magister, from L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher," ultimately from PIE root *meg- "great," cf. Pers. meh-, as below. (Aftari) Mastar "elder; larger," (Dari Kermân) mastar "leader, guide," variants (Aftari, Tafreši) mester "elder; great," massar "large, great, high," from (Nâini, Sangesari, Dari Yazd, Kermâni) mas "great, large," variant of meh "great, large, principal," cognate with L. magister "chief, head, director, teacher;" → Big Bang, + comparative suffix -tar. |
match kâd Fr.: match, partie A game or contest in which two or more contestants or teams oppose each other (Dictionary.com). Originally "one of a pair, an equal;" O.E mæcca, "companion, mate, one of a pair, wife, husband, an equal," from gemæcca; cf. O.S. gimaco "fellow, equal," O.H.G. gimah "comfort, ease," M.H.G. gemach "comfortable, quiet," Ger. gemach "easy, leisurely." Kâd, from Mid.Pers. kâdag "game," Sogd. kâtak "game, play;" cf. Kurd. (Sorani) kâya "game," Zazaki kây, Abyâneyi, Anâraki, Nâini kâye, Qohrudi kâda, Shamerzâdi ke, Zefrehi kê "game, play;" Av. kā- "to take pleasure, desire;" Skt. kā- "to desire, wish." |
mater mâdar (#) Fr.: mère, matrice The body of the → planispheric astrolabe which is a thin circular plate, with a hole in the center. It has a thicker, raised, and graduated edge, called the → limb. The hollow of the mater holds the → tympanum and the rotating → rete. The upper part of the mater carries a jointed ring, called the → throne. By slipping one's thumb into the ring, one raises the instrument so that its weight and symmetrical design keeps it perpendicular to the ground. On the back of the mater are engraved several circular scales (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum). From L. mater, → mother. |
material 1) mâdeyi, mâddi, mâdig; 2) mâdig Fr.: 1, 2) matériel 1) (adj.) Formed or consisting of matter. From L.L. materialis (adj.) "of or belonging to matter," from L. materia, → matter, + → -al. Mâdig, from mâd, mâddé, → matter, + -ig, → -ic. |
materialism mâddebâvari (#) Fr.: matérialisme Belief that physical matter is the only reality and that everything, including thought, feeling, mind, and will, can be explained in terms of matter and physical phenomena. N.L. materialismus; → material + -ism. Mâddebâvari, from mâddé, → matter, + bâvari, from bâvar "belief" (Mid.Pers. wâbar "beleif;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing"). |
materiality mâddigi Fr.: matérialité The state or quality of being material. |
materialization 1) mâdigeš 2) mâdigâneš Fr.: matérialisation The act or process of materializing. Verbal noun of → materialize. |
materialize 1) mâdigidan; 2) mâdigândan Fr.: 1) se matérialiser; 2) matérialiser 1a) To come into material form. To take shape. |
mathematical mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique Of, relating to, or of the nature of mathematics. → mathematics; → -al. |
mathematical beauty zibâyi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: beauté mathématique Same as → mathematical elegance. → mathematical; → beauty. |
mathematical elegance qašangi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: élégance mathématique A mathematical solution or demonstration when it yields a result in a surprising way (e.g., from apparently unrelated theorems), is short, and is based on fundamental concepts. According to Henri Poincaré, what gives the feeling of elegance "is the harmony of the different parts, their symmetry, and their happy adjustment; it is, in a word, all that introduces order, all that gives them unity, that enables us to obtain a clear comprehension of the whole as well as of the parts. ... Elegance may result from the feeling of surprise caused by the un-looked-for occurrence together of objects not habitually associated. ... Briefly stated, the sentiment of mathematical elegance is nothing but the satisfaction due to some conformity between the solution we wish to discover and the necessities of our mind" (Henri Poincaré, Science and Method, 1908). According to Bertrand Russell, "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty -- a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show" (Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1945). → mathematical; → elegance. |
mathematical expectation omid-e mazdâhik, bayuseš-e ~, ~ riyâzi Fr.: espérance mathématique In probability and statistics, of a random variable, the summation or integration, over all values of the random variable, of the product of the value and its probability of occurrence. Also called → expectation, → expected value. → mathematical; → expectation. |
mathematical object barâxt-e mazdâhik, ~ riyâzi Fr.: objet mathématique An → abstract object dealt with in mathematics that has a definition, obeys certain properties, and can be the target of certain operations. It is often built out of other, already defined objects. Some examples are → numbers, → functions, → triangles, martices (→ matrix), → groups, and entities such as → vector spaces, and → infinite series. → mathematical; → object. |
mathematician mazdâhikdân Fr.: mathématicien An expert or specialist in → mathematics. M.E. mathematicion, from M.Fr. mathematicien, from mathematique, from L. mathematicus, → mathematics. Mazdâhikdân, from mazdâhik, → mathematics, + -dân "knower," present stem of dânestan "to know," → science. |
mathematics mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique A broad-ranging field of knowledge dealing with the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. M.E. mathematic, from L. mathematica (ars), from Gk. mathematike (tekhne) "mathematical science," from mathema (gen. mathematos) "science, knowledge," (+ -ike, → -ics), related to manthein "to learn, to know" from PIE base *men- "to think," (cf. Av. mazdāh- "memory," as below, Lith. mandras "wide-awake," O.C.S. madru "wise, sage," Goth. mundonsis "to look at," Ger. munter "awake, lively"). Mazdâhik, from Av. mazdāh- "memory," mazdā-
"wisdom," mazdāθa- "what must be borne in mind;" from PIE
base *men- "to think," as above; cf.
Skt. medhā- "mental power, wisdom, intelligence;"
Gk. manthein, mathematike, as above. |
matrix mâtris (#) Fr.: matrice 1) An orderly array of numbers, algebraic symbols, or mathematical
functions, especially when such arrays are added and multiplied
according to certain rule; e.g. → Jordan matrix. From O.Fr. matrice, from L. matrix "female animal kept for breeding," in L.L. "womb, source, origin," from mater, → mother. Mâtris, loan from Fr., as above. |
matrix calculus afmârik-e mâtrishâ Fr.: calcul matriciel The treatment of matrices whose entries are functions. |
matrix inverse mâtris-e vârun Fr.: matrice inverse For a → square matrix whose → determinant is not zero, the unique matrix A^{-1} satisfying the relation AA^{-1} = A^{-1}A = I, where I is the → identity matrix. |
matter mâddé (#) Fr.: matière 1) Physical or corporeal substance in general, whether solid, liquid, or
gaseous, especially as distinguished from incorporeal substance, as spirit
or mind, or from qualities, actions, and the like. M.E. mater(e), materie, from O.Fr. mat(i)ere, materie, from L. materia "substance from which something is made," also "hard inner wood of a tree," from mater, → mother, PIE base *mater-, see below. Mâddé, variant mâyé "substance, essence; quantity, amount;"
Mid.Pers. mâtak/mâdak "substance, the essential element of anything; materials"
(Sogd. patmâδé "matter, substance"),
from mât, mâd "mother; substance" (see E. matter, as above),
from O.Pers./Av. mātar-
"mother;" cf. Ossetic mad/madae "mother;" Khotanese mâta "mother;"
Skt. mātár- "mother;" Gk. meter, mater; L. mater
(Fr. mère, Sp. madre);
O.E. môdor from P.Gmc. *mothær (O.S. modar, Dan. moder,
Du. moeder, Ger. Mutter); Lith. mote "wife." |
matter era dowrân-e mâddé (#) Fr.: ère dominée par la matière A critical change in the history of the Universe, which occurred after the radiation era, when the density of energy contained within matter exceeded the density of energy contained within radiation. This transition started about 5000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature had fallen to 3 x 10^{4} K. Later, 380 000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature was 3000 K, matter and radiation were no longer coupled together and the Universe became transparent. |
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