An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 672
Mimâs (#)

Fr.: Mimas   

The seventh of Saturn's known satellites. It is 392 km in diameter and orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 185,520 km. Mimas' low density (1.17) indicates that it is composed mostly of water ice with only a small amount of rock. The surface is saturated with impact craters, dominated by the largest one measuring 130 km across, known as Herschel. Mimas was discovered in 1789 by Herschel.

In Gk. mythology, Mimas was one of the Gigantes slain by Hephaestus, the god of fire, volcanism, smiths and craftsmen, with barrage of red-hot metal.


Fr.: esprit, intelligence, raison   

1) The human faculty to which are ascribed thought, feeling, etc; often regarded as an immaterial part of a person (
2) Psychology: The totality of conscious and unconscious → mental processes and activities (

M.E. mynd(e), from O.E. gemynd "memory, remembrance; thought, purpose" (cf. Gothic muns "thought," munan "to think;" ON minni "mind;" Ger. Minne (archaic) "love," originally "memory"), from PIE root *men- "think, remember;" cf. Pers. mân, man "mind, thought;" Av. man- "to think;" Skt. matih "thought," Gk. mania "madness," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea," O.C.S. mineti "to believe, think," Russ. pamjat "memory."

Ment, from Mid.Pers. mênitan "to think," Av. mainyeite "he thinks;" O.Pers. man- "to think," maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" Av. mân- "to think," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."

kâni (#)

Fr.: minéral   

A naturally occurring inorganic solid. The internal crystalline structure of a mineral is controlled by its elemental composition.

From M.L. minerale "something mined," from neuter of mineralis "pertaining to mines," from minera "mine."

Kâni "mineral," from kân "mine," from kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs").

mini black hole
mini siyahcâl

Fr.: mini corps noir   

A black hole of mass as low as 10-6 gram supposed to have formed in the early Universe following the Big Bang event. Same as primordial black hole.

Mini a shortening of → minimum; → black hole.

kaminé (#)

Fr.: minimum   

The least value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of maximum.

From L. minimum "smallest" (thing), neuter of minimus "smallest," superlative of → minor "smaller."

Kaminé, from kamin superlative of kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few." Keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + nuance suffix.

minimum deviation
  کژرفت ِ کمینه   
kažraft-e kaminé

Fr.: déviation minimale   

Same as → angle of minimum deviation.

minimum; → deviation.

minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID)
  دورای کمینه‌ی ِ اندرسکنج ِ مدار   
durâ-ye kamine-ye andarsekanj-e madâr

Fr.: distance minimale d'intersection d'une orbite   

The minimum distance between the paths of two orbiting objects around a → primary. Such distance between an object and Earth is called Earth MOID.

minimum; → orbit; → intersection; → distance.

minikuâsâr (#)

Fr.: mini-quasar   

1) A → quasar of lesser power compared to ordinary quasars hypothesized to exist at early cosmic times. According to some models, the Universe was reionized by a population of miniquasars powered by → intermediate-mass black holes.
2) Same as → microquasar.

Mini a shortening of → minimum; → quasar.

Minkowski diagram
  نمودار ِ مینکوفسکی   
nemudâr-e Minkowski

Fr.: diagramme de Minkowski   

Same as → space-time diagram.

Minkowski metric; → diagram.

Minkowski metric
  متریک ِ مینکوفسکی   
metrik-e Minkofski (#)

Fr.: métrique de Minkowski   

The → metric that belongs to a four-dimensional → flat manifold and is given by ds2 = - dt2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2. Three coordinates represent → space and the fourth coordinate is devoted to → time. The Minkowski metric underlies the → geometry of → special relativity. Compare → Robertson-Walker metric.

In honor of Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909), Russian-born German mathematician, who introduced the concept of the four-dimensional nature of space-time; → metric.

Minkowski space-time
  فضا-زمان ِ مینکوفسکی   
fazâ-zamân-e Minkowski (#)

Fr.: espace-temps de Minkowski   

A completely flat four-dimensional space, which contains no gravitating matter, used in the theory of special relativity.

Minkowski metric; → space-time.

Minkowski's object
  بر‌آخت ِ مینکوفسکی   
barâxt-e Minkowski

Fr.: objet de Minkowski   

A peculiar blue object near the → elliptical galaxy NGC 541 in the → galaxy cluster Abell 194. According to several pieces of evidence, the → starburst in Minkowski's object was triggered by the → radio jet emerging from the → nucleus of the nearby → active galaxy NGC 541. This is similar to the jet-induced → star formation associated with → Centaurus A, and the radio-aligned star forming regions in powerful radio galaxies at → high redshift. Absorption and emission line measurements and broadband → SED fitting, give an age of around 7.5 Myr for Minkowski's object.

Minkowski, R., 1958, PASP, 70, 143; → object.

kehin (#)

Fr.: mineur   

Lesser or smaller in amount, extent, or size.

From L. minor "lesser, smaller, junior," from PIE base *mei- "small" (cf. L. minuere "make small;" Gk. meion "less," minuthein "to lessen;" Skt. miyate "diminishes, declines;" O.E. minsian "to diminish").

Kehin comparative and superlative of keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few;" from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + nuance suffix.

minor axis
  آسه‌ی ِ کهین   
âse-ye kehin

Fr.: petit axe   

The axis of an ellipse that is perpendicular to the major axis at a point equidistant from the foci.

minor; → axis.

minor merger
  تشک ِ کهین   
tašk-e kehin

Fr.: fusion mineure   

The → merging in which one of the galaxies is significantly larger than the other (mass ratios above 10). The larger galaxy will often "swallow" the smaller satellite galaxy. The swallowed galaxy can trigger disk and nuclear star formation or activate a central core with shells that surround the predator.

minor; → merger.

minor planet
sayyârak (#)

Fr.: petite planète   

An obsolete name used to describe an → asteroid.

minor; → planet.

minor premise
  پیشپایه‌ی ِ کهین   
pišpâye-ye kehin

Fr.: prémisse mineur   

Logic: In a → categorical syllogism, the premise containing the → minor term.

major; → premisse.

minor term
  ترم ِ کهین   
tarm-e kehin

Fr.: terme mineur   

Logic: In a → syllogism, the → subject of the → conclusion.

minor; → term.


Fr.: minorant   

For a function f defined on the interval I, the point m such that for each x on I, f(x)m. See also → majorant.

From Fr. minorant, from minorer "to reduce, cut," from L. → minor.

Kehân, from kehidan, from keh "small, little," → minor.

kehini (#)

Fr.: minorant   

The smaller number, part, or quantity of a whole.

minor; → -ity.

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