An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 683
million
  میلیون   
milyon (#)

Fr.: million   

A thousand thousand (106).

O.Fr. million, from It. millione, literally "a great thousand," augmentative of mille "thousand," from L. mille.

Milyon, Loan from Fr.

millisecond pulsar
  پولسار ِ میلی‌ثانیه، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e milisâniyé (#), tapâr-e ~ (#)

Fr.: pulsar milliseconde   

A type of pulsar that spins around its axis every few thousands of a second. The prototype 1937+21, discovered in 1982, has a period of 1.56 milliseconds; i.e. it spins more than 600 times per second, the fastest so far found (Backer et al. 1982, Nature 300, 615). These pulsars are distinguished from typical pulsars by the extreme stability of their rotation period. It is thought that they have been rejuvenated by a "spin-up process" involving the accumulation of matter from a companion star. → recycled pulsar.

milli-; → second; → pulsar.

millisievert (mSv)
  میلی-سیورت   
milisievert

Fr.: millisievert   

One thousands of a → sievert.

milli- + → sievert.

Mills cross
  چلیپای ِ میلز   
calipâ-ye Mills

Fr.: croix de Mills   

A design of → radio interferometer made of two lines of → antennae at right angles to one another.

Named after the Australian engineer and astronomer Bernard Yarnton Mills (1920-2011; see R.H. Frater et al. 2013, arXiv:1306.6371); → cross.

Milne cosmological model
  مدل ِ کیهان‌شناختی ِ میلن   
model-e keyhânšenâxti-ye Milne (#)

Fr.: modèle cosmologique de Milne   

Same as → Milne Universe.

Milne Universe; → cosmological; → model.

Milne Universe
  گیتی ِ میلن   
Giti-ye Milne (#)

Fr.: Univers de Milne   

A model of the → Universe which is devoid of matter and where the → space-time is → openM = 0, ΩR = 0, ΩΛ = 0, k = -1). The Universe will expand at a constant rate for ever. See also → empty Universe, → de Sitter Universe.

Put forward by Edward Arthur Milne (1896-1950), a British astrophysicist, who introduced the → cosmological principle; → cosmological; → model.

Milne-Eddington approximation
  نزدینش ِ میلن-ادینگتون   
nazdineš-e Milne-Eddington

Fr.: approximation de Milne-Eddington   

The approximation of a stellar atmosphere with a plane parallel grey atmosphere in radiative equilibrium. It is assumed that a spectral is formed in such a way that the ratio of the line absorption coefficient to the continuous absorption coefficient is constant with depth.

Milne Universe; Arthur Stanley Eddington (1882-1944), prominent British astrophysicist; → approximation.

Mimas
  میماس   
Mimâs (#)

Fr.: Mimas   

The seventh of Saturn's known satellites. It is 392 km in diameter and orbits Saturn at a mean distance of 185,520 km. Mimas' low density (1.17) indicates that it is composed mostly of water ice with only a small amount of rock. The surface is saturated with impact craters, dominated by the largest one measuring 130 km across, known as Herschel. Mimas was discovered in 1789 by Herschel.

In Gk. mythology, Mimas was one of the Gigantes slain by Hephaestus, the god of fire, volcanism, smiths and craftsmen, with barrage of red-hot metal.

mind
  منت   
ment

Fr.: esprit, intelligence, raison   

1) The human faculty to which are ascribed thought, feeling, etc; often regarded as an immaterial part of a person (Dictionary.com).
2) Psychology: The totality of conscious and unconscious → mental processes and activities (Dictionary.com).

M.E. mynd(e), from O.E. gemynd "memory, remembrance; thought, purpose" (cf. Gothic muns "thought," munan "to think;" ON minni "mind;" Ger. Minne (archaic) "love," originally "memory"), from PIE root *men- "think, remember;" cf. Pers. mân, man "mind, thought;" Av. man- "to think;" Skt. matih "thought," Gk. mania "madness," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea," O.C.S. mineti "to believe, think," Russ. pamjat "memory."

Ment, from Mid.Pers. mênitan "to think," Av. mainyeite "he thinks;" O.Pers. man- "to think," maniyaiy "I think," Ardumaniš- (proper noun) "upright-minded," Haxāmaniš- (proper noun, Hellenized Achaemenes, founder of the Achaemenian dynasty) "having the mind of a friend;" Av. mân- "to think," manah- "mind, thinking, thought; purpose, intention," mainyu- "mind, mentality, mental force, inspiration," cf. Sogdian mân "mind;" Skt. man- "to think," mánye "I think," manyate "he thinks," mánas- "intelligence, understanding, conscience;" Gk. mainomai "to be angry," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet;" L. mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;" Lith. mintis "thought, idea;" Goth. muns "thought," munan "to think;" Ger. Minne "love," originally "loving memory;" O.E. gemynd "memory, thinking, intention;" PIE base *men- "to think, mind; spiritual activity."

mineral
  کانی   
kâni (#)

Fr.: minéral   

A naturally occurring inorganic solid. The internal crystalline structure of a mineral is controlled by its elemental composition.

From M.L. minerale "something mined," from neuter of mineralis "pertaining to mines," from minera "mine."

Kâni "mineral," from kân "mine," from kandan "to dig" (Mid.Pers. kandan "to dig;" O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Av. kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (→ ex- for prefix us-); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs").

mini black hole
  مینی‌سیه‌چال   
mini siyahcâl

Fr.: mini corps noir   

A black hole of mass as low as 10-6 gram supposed to have formed in the early Universe following the Big Bang event. Same as primordial black hole.

Mini a shortening of → minimum; → black hole.

minimum
  کمینه   
kaminé (#)

Fr.: minimum   

The least value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of maximum.

From L. minimum "smallest" (thing), neuter of minimus "smallest," superlative of → minor "smaller."

Kaminé, from kamin superlative of kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce" (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few." Keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + nuance suffix.

minimum deviation
  کژرفت ِ کمینه   
kažraft-e kaminé

Fr.: déviation minimale   

Same as → angle of minimum deviation.

minimum; → deviation.

minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID)
  دورای کمینه‌ی ِ اندرسکنج ِ مدار   
durâ-ye kamine-ye andarsekanj-e madâr

Fr.: distance minimale d'intersection d'une orbite   

The minimum distance between the paths of two orbiting objects around a → primary. Such distance between an object and Earth is called Earth MOID.

minimum; → orbit; → intersection; → distance.

miniquasar
  مینی‌کو‌آسار   
minikuâsâr (#)

Fr.: mini-quasar   

1) A → quasar of lesser power compared to ordinary quasars hypothesized to exist at early cosmic times. According to some models, the Universe was reionized by a population of miniquasars powered by → intermediate-mass black holes.
2) Same as → microquasar.

Mini a shortening of → minimum; → quasar.

Minkowski diagram
  نمودار ِ مینکوفسکی   
nemudâr-e Minkowski

Fr.: diagramme de Minkowski   

Same as → space-time diagram.

Minkowski metric; → diagram.

Minkowski metric
  متریک ِ مینکوفسکی   
metrik-e Minkofski (#)

Fr.: métrique de Minkowski   

The → metric that belongs to a four-dimensional → flat manifold and is given by ds2 = - dt2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2. Three coordinates represent → space and the fourth coordinate is devoted to → time. The Minkowski metric underlies the → geometry of → special relativity. Compare → Robertson-Walker metric.

In honor of Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909), Russian-born German mathematician, who introduced the concept of the four-dimensional nature of space-time; → metric.

Minkowski space-time
  فضا-زمان ِ مینکوفسکی   
fazâ-zamân-e Minkowski (#)

Fr.: espace-temps de Minkowski   

A completely flat four-dimensional space, which contains no gravitating matter, used in the theory of special relativity.

Minkowski metric; → space-time.

Minkowski's object
  بر‌آخت ِ مینکوفسکی   
barâxt-e Minkowski

Fr.: objet de Minkowski   

A peculiar blue object near the → elliptical galaxy NGC 541 in the → galaxy cluster Abell 194. According to several pieces of evidence, the → starburst in Minkowski's object was triggered by the → radio jet emerging from the → nucleus of the nearby → active galaxy NGC 541. This is similar to the jet-induced → star formation associated with → Centaurus A, and the radio-aligned star forming regions in powerful radio galaxies at → high redshift. Absorption and emission line measurements and broadband → SED fitting, give an age of around 7.5 Myr for Minkowski's object.

Minkowski, R., 1958, PASP, 70, 143; → object.

minor
  کهین   
kehin (#)

Fr.: mineur   

Lesser or smaller in amount, extent, or size.

From L. minor "lesser, smaller, junior," from PIE base *mei- "small" (cf. L. minuere "make small;" Gk. meion "less," minuthein "to lessen;" Skt. miyate "diminishes, declines;" O.E. minsian "to diminish").

Kehin comparative and superlative of keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few;" from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + nuance suffix.

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