An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 672
Mintaka (δ Orionis)
  منطقه   
Mantaqé (#)

Fr.: Mintaka   

The faintest and the westernmost of the three stars which appear in a row and make up the → Orion's Belt. It is a blue star of magnitude 2.23 lying 915 light-years away. Mintaka is in fact an → eclipsing binary with a period of 5.7 days. The main star has a → spectral type of O9.5 and radiates near 90,000 times the → solar luminosity. Mintaka is remarkable as regards the discovery of the → interstellar medium. The ISM was discovered by the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1855-1936) through the study of δ Orionis. He remarked that the calcium line at 3934 Å did not share in the periodic displacements of the lines caused by the orbital motion of the star. This suggested that the calcium line was not from the stars but from an intervening interstellar absorbing cloud.

Mintaka, from al-Mintaqah "the belt," from al-Mintaqah al-Jauzâ' (المنطقه‌الجوزاء) "the belt of the central one (Orion)."

minus
  کمن   
kaman

Fr.: moins   

1) (prep.) With the deduction of.
2) (adj.) → negative.
3) (n.) A deficiency or subtraction; the minus sign.

L. minus "less," neuter of minor "smaller," ultimately from PIE *mi-nu-, suffixed form of root *mei- "small;" cf. L. minuere "to diminish, lessen;" Gk. meion "less, smaller;" Av. (+ prefix *ui-) vīmītô.dantānô "with lost teeth;" O.Pers. mīθah- "damage, harm;" Mid.Pers. (+ *ui-) wmys- "to fade;" Mod.Pers. gum, gom "lost;" Ossetian minæg "weak, dim (light)" (Cheung 2007); Skt. miyate "diminishes," Russ. men'she "less;" O.E. minsian "to diminish."

Kaman, from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few" + suffix -an that occurs in many words, such as rowšan, rowzan "bright, window," anjoman "assembly, association," hâvan "mortar," mihan "homeland, dwelling," barzan "district, neighborhood," rasan "rope." These particular cases are related to Proto-Ir./Av. -ana: raocana-, hanjamana-, hāvana-, maeθana-, *varezana-, and *uraisana- respectively; other cases may have a different origin, e.g. Proto-Ir. *-an.

minute
  دقیقه   
daqiqé (#)

Fr.: minute   

A unit of angular measurement equal to one sixtieth of a degree.
A unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour.

From O.Fr. minut, from M.L. minuta "minute, short note," from L. minuta, feminin of minutus "small, minute." In M.L., pars minuta prima "first small part" was used by Ptolemy for "one-sixtieth of a circle," later of an hour (next in order was secunda minuta, which became second).

Daqiqé, loan from Ar. daqiqat.

Mira
  میرا   
Mirâ (#)

Fr.: Mira   

A → red giant → variable star in the constellation → Cetus, called also Omicron (ο) Ceti. Its → visual magnitude varies between 2.0 and 10.1 over a period of about 330 days, and its → spectral type between M5 and M9. Its diameter is 400-500 times that of the Sun, and it lies approximately 420 → light-years away. Mira is a → binary star, consisting of the red giant Mira A along with Mira B. It is the prototype of a class known as → long-period variables, or → Mira variables.

From L. mira "wonderful," as named by J. Hevelius (1611-1687).

Mira variable
  ورتندگان ِ میراوار   
vartandegân-e Mirâ-vâr

Fr.: variables de type Mira   

A periodic → variable star with cycles 100-500 days, and of → spectral types K, M, S, and C; also called → long-period variables.

Mira; → variable.

Mirach
  مراق   
Merâq

Fr.: Mirach   

Traditional name of → Beta Andromedae that may easily be confounded with → Merak (β Ursae Majoris).

A variant of → Merak.

Mirach's Ghost
  پرهیب ِ مراق   
parhib-e Merâq

Fr.: fantôme de Mirach   

Same as → NGC 404.

Mirach; → ghost.

mirage
  سراب   
sarâb (#)

Fr.: mirage   

An optical phenomenon caused by → refraction of light in the lowest layers of the Earth's → atmosphere especially in the → desert, over a hot pavement, or at → sea. Due to temperature variations, the air → density varies, leading to a spatial variation of the → index of refraction of → air. As a result, light from a single point takes more than one path to the observer and the → image of some distant object appears displaced from its true position; the image may appear distorted, inverted, or wavering.

From Fr. mirage, from (se) mir(er) "to look at (oneself), be reflected" (from L. mirare "to wonder at, admire") + suffix -age.

Sarâb "mirage," literally "water point, water origin, water head," probably from sar "origin, beginning," → head, + âb, → water. The similarity with Ar. serab (cf. Hebrew sharab "burning heat, parched ground") may be fortuitous.

Miranda
  میراندا   
Mirândâ (#)

Fr.: Miranda   

The eleventh of Uranus's known satellites and the innermost of Uranus' large moons. Its is about 470 km in diameter and orbits Uranus at about 130,000 km from its planet. It was discovered by Kuiper in 1948.

Miranda is a daughter of the magician Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Mirfak (α Persei)
  مرفق   
Merfaq (#)

Fr.: Mirfak   

The brightest star of Perseus, with a visual magnitude of 1.8. It is a giant of spectral type F5 lying some 590 light-years away.

From Ar. al-Mirfaq (المرفق) "the elbow."

Merfaq, from Ar. al-Mirfaq, as above.

mirror
  آینه   
âyené (#)

Fr.: miroir   

A smooth, highly polished surface, for reflecting light, that may be plane or curved. The actual reflecting surface is usually a thin coating of silver or aluminum on glass.

From O.Fr. mireor "a reflecting glass," earlier miradoir, from mirer "look at," from V.L. *mirare, from L. mirari "to wonder at, admire."

Âyené, from Mid.Pers. êwênag "mirror," from *âdênak, from Proto-Iranian *ādayanaka-, from prefix ā- + the root of Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees" (cf. Mod.Pers. didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + suffix -ak.

mirror blank
  گرده‌ی ِ آینه   
gerde-ye âyené

Fr.: disque miroir   

The material on which the reflecting coating is applied. It may be glass, quartz, or metal.

mirror; blank "a piece of metal ready to be drawn, pressed, or machined into a finished object," from M.E., from O.Fr. blanc (adj.) from Gmc; cf. O.E. blanca "white horse," O.H.G. blanch "bright, white."

Gerdé, → disk; âyené, → mirror.

mirror disk
  گرده‌ی ِ آینه   
gerde-ye âyené

Fr.: ébauche de miroir   

Same as → mirror blank.

mirror; → disk.

mirror testing
  آزمون ِ آینه   
âzmun-e âyené (#)

Fr.: test d'un miroir   

The observation and measurement of the flatness of a mirror surface. The process generally is done before coating so as not to damage the delicate coated surface. For coated and curved surfaces, non-contact methods are often employed, generally using interference techniques.

mirror; → test.

Mirzam (β Canis Majoris)
  مرزم   
Merzam (#)

Fr.: Mirzam   

The fourth brightest star in the constellation → Canis Major. It is a B1 → giant of magnitude 2.0 lying about 500 → light-years away. Mirzam is one of the brightest of the → Beta Cephei variable stars.

From Ar. al-Mirzam (المرزم) "subordinate," which according to the Persian astronomer Biruni (A.D. 973-1048) was a general name for a relatively fainter star lying beside a much brighter one, in this case → Sirius. Some sources have related the name of this star to Ar. al-Murzim (المرزم) "the roarer." They claim that this name refers to the fact that the star is situated to the east of Sirius and thus "announces, heralds" imminent rising of Sirius. However, this interpretation does not seem tenable since the meaning "announcing" is far-fetched, and moreover the angular distance between Sirius and Mirzam being small, they actually rise together.

misalignment
  دژخطش   
dožxateš

Fr.: mésalignement   

Deviation of the chain of → optical components from the optimum → alignment in an instrument which leads to → loss of → light and poor → image.

From mis- a prefix meaning "ill, mistaken, wrong, wrongly" + → alignment.

Dožxateš, from dož-, → dys-, + (â)xateš, → alignment.

missile
  موشک   
mušak (#)

Fr.: missile   

An object or weapon for throwing, hurling, or shooting. → ballistic missile.

From Fr. missile, from L. missile "weapon that can be thrown," from missus, p.p. of mittere "to send."

Mušak, literally "little mouse," or "mouse like," from a firework explosive that was likened to a mouse, from muš, → mouse, + -ak diminutive or similarity suffix.

missing mass
  جرم ِ گم‌شده   
jerm-e gomšodé (#)

Fr.: masse manquante   

The unseen mass whose gravitational influence is needed to account for the way galaxies rotate, and also to bind clusters of galaxies together. It is thought to consist, in part, of giant halos of dark matter that surround the visible portions of galaxies, and similar material that invisibly occupies the intergalactic voids. Same as → hidden mass; → dark matter.

Missing, from miss "to fail to be present," from M.E. missen, O.E. missan; cf. O.Fris. missa, M.Du. missen, Ger. missen "to miss, fail;" → mass.

Jerm, → mass; gomšodé "lost, missing," from gom "missing, lost" + šodé p.p. of šodan "to become" (from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro").

missing satellites problem (MSP)
  پراسه‌ی ِ بنده‌وارهای ِ گم‌شده   
parâse-ye bandevârhâ-ye gomšodé

Fr.: problème des satellites manquants   

The observed underabundance, by one or two orders of magnitude, of → dwarf galaxies orbiting → spiral galaxies compared to their number predicted by the standard model. The → cold dark matter (CDM) model predicts that dwarf galaxies are the building blocks of large galaxies like the Milky Way and should largely outnumber them. Dwarf galaxies form first, they merge into bigger and bigger galaxies, and galaxies into groups of galaxies. The dark matter halos, however, are very dense, and dwarf halos are not destroyed in the merging, resulting in their large predicted number, in numerical simulations.

Probably first dealt with in an article entitled "Where Are the Missing Galactic Satellites?" (Lypin et al. 1999, ApJ 522, 82); → missing mass; → satellite; → problem.

mission
  گسیلان   
gosilân

Fr.: mission   

An operation designed to carry out the goals of a specific program, such as a a space flight or voyage.

Mission, from L. missionem (nominative missio) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," of unknown origin.

Gosilân, from gosil, variant gosi "sending away, dismission;" Mid.Pers. wisé "to despatch" (Parthian Mid.Pers. wsys- "to despatch;" Buddhist Mid.Pers. wsydy "to despatch;" Sogdian 'ns'yd- "to exhort"), from Proto-Iranian *vi-sid- "to despatch, send off," from prefix vi- "apart, away, out," + *sid- "to call" + -ân nuance suffix.

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