# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 699
 minimum deviation   کژرفت ِ کمینه   kažraft-e kaminéFr.: déviation minimale   Same as → angle of minimum deviation.→ minimum; → deviation. minimum orbit intersection distance (MOID)   دورای کمینه‌ی ِ اندرسکنج ِ مدار   durâ-ye kamine-ye andarsekanj-e madârFr.: distance minimale d'intersection d'une orbite   The minimum distance between the paths of two orbiting objects around a → primary. Such distance between an object and Earth is called Earth MOID.→ minimum; → orbit; → intersection; → distance. miniquasar   مینی‌کو‌آسار   minikuâsâr (#)Fr.: mini-quasar   1) A → quasar of lesser power compared to ordinary quasars hypothesized to exist at early cosmic times. According to some models, the Universe was reionized by a population of miniquasars powered by → intermediate-mass black holes. 2) Same as → microquasar.Mini a shortening of → minimum; → quasar. Minkowski diagram   نمودار ِ مینکوفسکی   nemudâr-e MinkowskiFr.: diagramme de Minkowski   Same as → space-time diagram. Minkowski metric   متریک ِ مینکوفسکی   metrik-e Minkofski (#)Fr.: métrique de Minkowski   The → metric that belongs to a four-dimensional → flat manifold and is given by ds2 = - dt2 + dx2 + dy2 + dz2. Three coordinates represent → space and the fourth coordinate is devoted to → time. The Minkowski metric underlies the → geometry of → special relativity. Compare → Robertson-Walker metric.In honor of Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909), Russian-born German mathematician, who introduced the concept of the four-dimensional nature of space-time; → metric. Minkowski space-time   فضا-زمان ِ مینکوفسکی   fazâ-zamân-e Minkowski (#)Fr.: espace-temps de Minkowski   A completely flat four-dimensional space, which contains no gravitating matter, used in the theory of special relativity. Minkowski's object   بر‌آخت ِ مینکوفسکی   barâxt-e MinkowskiFr.: objet de Minkowski   A peculiar blue object near the → elliptical galaxy NGC 541 in the → galaxy cluster Abell 194. According to several pieces of evidence, the → starburst in Minkowski's object was triggered by the → radio jet emerging from the → nucleus of the nearby → active galaxy NGC 541. This is similar to the jet-induced → star formation associated with → Centaurus A, and the radio-aligned star forming regions in powerful radio galaxies at → high redshift. Absorption and emission line measurements and broadband → SED fitting, give an age of around 7.5 Myr for Minkowski's object.Minkowski, R., 1958, PASP, 70, 143; → object. minor   کهین   kehin (#)Fr.: mineur   Lesser or smaller in amount, extent, or size.From L. minor "lesser, smaller, junior," from PIE base *mei- "small" (cf. L. minuere "make small;" Gk. meion "less," minuthein "to lessen;" Skt. miyate "diminishes, declines;" O.E. minsian "to diminish").Kehin comparative and superlative of keh "small, little, slender" (related to kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease, lessen, diminish," kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," (Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few;" from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little;" Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen") + -é nuance suffix. minor axis   آسه‌ی ِ کهین   âse-ye kehinFr.: petit axe   The axis of an ellipse that is perpendicular to the major axis at a point equidistant from the foci.→ minor; → axis. minor merger   تشک ِ کهین   tašk-e kehinFr.: fusion mineure   The → merging in which one of the galaxies is significantly larger than the other (mass ratios above 10). The larger galaxy will often "swallow" the smaller satellite galaxy. The swallowed galaxy can trigger disk and nuclear star formation or activate a central core with shells that surround the predator.→ minor; → merger. minor planet   سیارک   sayyârak (#)Fr.: petite planète   An obsolete name used to describe an → asteroid.→ minor; → planet. minor premise   پیشپایه‌ی ِ کهین   pišpâye-ye kehinFr.: prémisse mineur   Logic: In a → categorical syllogism, the premise containing the → minor term.→ major; → premisse. minor term   ترم ِ کهین   tarm-e kehinFr.: terme mineur   Logic: In a → syllogism, the → subject of the → conclusion.→ minor; → term. minorant   کهان   kehânFr.: minorant   For a function f defined on the interval I, the point m such that for each x on I, f(x)≥ m. See also → majorant.From Fr. minorant, from minorer "to reduce, cut," from L. → minor.Kehân, from kehidan, from keh "small, little," → minor. minority   کهینی   kehini (#)Fr.: minorant   The smaller number, part, or quantity of a whole.→ minor; → -ity. Mintaka (δ Orionis)   منطقه   Mantaqé (#)Fr.: Mintaka   The faintest and the westernmost of the three stars which appear in a row and make up the → Orion's Belt. It is a blue star of magnitude 2.23 lying 915 light-years away. Mintaka is in fact an → eclipsing binary with a period of 5.7 days. The main star has a → spectral type of O9.5 and radiates near 90,000 times the → solar luminosity. Mintaka is remarkable as regards the discovery of the → interstellar medium. The ISM was discovered by the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1855-1936) through the study of δ Orionis. He remarked that the calcium line at 3934 Å did not share in the periodic displacements of the lines caused by the orbital motion of the star. This suggested that the calcium line was not from the stars but from an intervening interstellar absorbing cloud.Mintaka, from al-Mintaqah "the belt," from al-Mintaqah al-Jauzâ' (المنطقه‌الجوزاء) "the belt of the central one (Orion)." minus   کمن   kamanFr.: moins   1) (prep.) With the deduction of. 2) (adj.) → negative. 3) (n.) A deficiency or subtraction; the minus sign.L. minus "less," neuter of minor "smaller," ultimately from PIE *mi-nu-, suffixed form of root *mei- "small;" cf. L. minuere "to diminish, lessen;" Gk. meion "less, smaller;" Av. (+ prefix *ui-) vīmītô.dantānô "with lost teeth;" O.Pers. mīθah- "damage, harm;" Mid.Pers. (+ *ui-) wmys- "to fade;" Mod.Pers. gum, gom "lost;" Ossetian minæg "weak, dim (light)" (Cheung 2007); Skt. miyate "diminishes," Russ. men'she "less;" O.E. minsian "to diminish."Kaman, from kam "little, few; deficient, wanting; scarce," from Mid.Pers. kam "little, small, few," O.Pers./Av. kamna- "small, few" + suffix -an that occurs in many words, such as rowšan, rowzan "bright, window," anjoman "assembly, association," hâvan "mortar," mihan "homeland, dwelling," barzan "district, neighborhood," rasan "rope." These particular cases are related to Proto-Ir./Av. -ana: raocana-, hanjamana-, hāvana-, maeθana-, *varezana-, and *uraisana- respectively; other cases may have a different origin, e.g. Proto-Ir. *-an. minute   دقیقه   daqiqé (#)Fr.: minute   A unit of angular measurement equal to one sixtieth of a degree. A unit of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour.From O.Fr. minut, from M.L. minuta "minute, short note," from L. minuta, feminin of minutus "small, minute." In M.L., pars minuta prima "first small part" was used by Ptolemy for "one-sixtieth of a circle," later of an hour (next in order was secunda minuta, which became second).Daqiqé, loan from Ar. daqiqat. Mira   میرا   Mirâ (#)Fr.: Mira   A → red giant → variable star in the constellation → Cetus, called also Omicron (ο) Ceti. Its → visual magnitude varies between 2.0 and 10.1 over a period of about 330 days, and its → spectral type between M5 and M9. Its diameter is 400-500 times that of the Sun, and it lies approximately 420 → light-years away. Mira is a → binary star, consisting of the red giant Mira A along with Mira B. It is the prototype of a class known as → long-period variables, or → Mira variables.From L. mira "wonderful," as named by J. Hevelius (1611-1687). Mira variable   ورتندگان ِ میراوار   vartandegân-e Mirâ-vârFr.: variables de type Mira   A periodic → variable star with cycles 100-500 days, and of → spectral types K, M, S, and C; also called → long-period variables.→ Mira; → variable.