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mixing length derâzâ-ye âmizeš Fr.: longueur de mélange In a → turbulent flow, the average distance traveled by a → convective cell before it dissolves into its surroundings and deposits its energy. The mixing length is of the order of the → pressure scale height (H_{P}), l = αH_{P}, where α is the → mixing length parameter. See also → mixing length theory. |
mixing length parameter pârâmun-e derâzâ-ye âmizeš Fr.: paramètre de la longueur de mémange In the → mixing length theory, a parameter, α, that relates the → mixing length, l, to the → pressure scale height: α = l/H_{P}. It is usually supposed that α is of order unity. Changes in α correspond to variations in the efficiency of the → convection, hence the transfer of heat. |
mixing length theory (MLT) negare-ye derâzâ-ye âmizeš Fr.: théorie de la longueur de mélange A theory dealing with heat transport by → turbulence which includes an elementary treatment of → convection. The central idea is that an unbalanced → buoyancy force drives a → convective cell to move through a distance, called the → mixing length, before the cell dissolves and joins the ambient medium. In this theory an adjustable → mixing length parameter α is used. The theory, originally due to L. Prandtl (1925), was first applied to the Sun by L. Biermann (1932, Z. Astrophys. 5, 117). |
mixing ratio vâbar-e âmizeš Fr.:rapport de mélange Mass of water vapor per mass of dry air; expressed as grams per kilogram. → humidity |
mixture âmizé (#) Fr.: mixture An aggregate of two or more substances that are not chemically combined with each other. M.E., from L. mixtura "a mixing," from mixtus, → mix. Âmizé, from âmiz present stem of âmixtan, → mix. |
Mizar (ζ Ursae Majoris) Me'zar (#) Fr.: Mizar A star of visual magnitude 2.3 in the constellation → Ursa Major, which is the second star from the end of the → Big Dipper's handle. It forms a naked-eye double with → Alcor, lying at an angular separation of about 12 minutes of arc. Mizar is resolved into a 14''.4 → binary star (denoted A and B) with a probable period of thousands of years. Mizar A is a nearly equal-mass, → double-lined spectroscopic binary with period 20.54 days and → eccentricity of 0.53. The two components of Mizar A (denoted Aa and Ab) are both about 35 times as luminous as the Sun, and revolve around each other in about 20 days. Similarly, Mizar B is a → spectroscopic binary with a period of 175.57 days and an eccentricity of 0.46. Recent results suggest that Alcor is actually a binary and apparently → gravitationally bound to the Mizar system. This would make the Mizar-Alcor system a probable → sextuplet, lying at about 78 → light-years from Sun and the second closest such multiple known, after → Castor (Mamajek et al., 2010, AJ 139, 919). Mizar, from Ar. al-Mi'zar ( |
mJy mJy Fr.: mJy A unit of → radio flux density, equal to 10^{-3} → jansky (Jy). → milli-; → jansky (Jy). |
MK system Fr.: A system of stellar → spectral classification. The same as → Morgan-Keenan classification. Also called MKK system, → Yerkes system. |
MKS system râžmân-e MKS Fr.: système MKS The system of → MKS units. |
MKS units yekâhâ-ye MKS Fr.: unités MKS The international system of units based on the → meter, → kilogram, and → second. MKS, the initials of → meter, → kilogram, and → second; meter, kilogram, and second; → unit. |
mnemonic yâdsepâr (#), yâdsepârik Fr.: mnémonique 1) (adj.) Assisting or intended to assist the
→ memory. From Gk. mnemonikos "of or pertaining to memory," from mnemon "remembering, mindful," from mnasthai "remember," from PIE base *men- "to think;" cf. Pers. man-, -mân, minu, → idea. Yâdsepâr, stem of Yâdsepârdan "memorize," from yâd "remembrance, recollection, memory" (Mid.Pers. ayâd) + sepârdan, sepor- "to yield, give, hand over" (Mid.Pers. abespâr- "to hand over, entrust;" cf. O.N. spara, O.H.G. sparon, O.E. sparian, E. spare); yâdsepârik, → mnemonics. |
mnemonics yâdsepârik Fr.: mnémonique Something capable of assisting one's memory. The process or technique of improving the memory. |
modal modi, modmand Fr.: modal Of or relating to mode, manner, or form. |
modality modigi, modmandi Fr.: modalité The quality or state of being → modal. |
mode tarz, mod Fr.: mode 1) Physics: Any of the distinct patterns of oscillation that a
given periodically varying system can have. Mode, from Fr. mode, from L. modus "measure, rhythm, song, manner," from PIE base *med- "to measure, limit, judge, advise;" cf. L. meditari "to think or reflect upon, consider;" Av. mad- "to measure out, apportion, allot;" Gk. medein "to rule;" O.E. metan "to measure out." Tarz "manner, mode," Arabicized as |
model 1) (n.) model, tarzâl; 2) (v.) model sâxtan, tarzâlidan Fr.: 1) modèle; 2) modéliser 1a) A mathematical representation of a process, system, or object
developed to understand its behavior or to make predictions. The
representation always involves certain simplifications and
assumptions. See also → theory,
→ hypothesis. M.Fr. modelle (Fr. modèle), from It. modello "a model, mold," from V.L. *modellus, from L. modulus "measure, standard," from modus "manner, measure" (cf. Av. mad-, → mode), PIE *med- + -ulus, → -ula. 1) Model, from Fr. modèle.
Tarzâl, from tarz, → mode + -âl,
→ -al. |
model dependence vâbastegi bé model, ~ ~ tarzâl Fr.: dépendance du modèle In a theoretical analysis, the solution that does not correctly treat the intervening parameters, or neglects some crucial factors. |
modeling modelsâzi, tarzâleš Fr.: modélisation The simulation of a process, concept, or operation of a system often implemented by a computer program and making use of a mathematical treatment. Verbal noun of → model |
modern novin (#) Fr.: moderne 1) Relating or belonging to present and recent time.
→ modern physics. From M.Fr. moderne, from L.L. modernus, from L. modo "lately, just now," from modo "to the measure," ablative of modus "manner, measure," → mode. Novin, from now, → new, + -in adj. suffix, as in dirin, pasin, barin, kehin, mehin, behin, zirin, zabarin, pâyin, bâlâyin. |
modern physics fizik-e novin (#) Fr.: physique moderne The physics developed since about 1900, which includes Einstein's → relativity theory and → quantum mechanics, as distinguished from → classical physics. Much of modern physics is concerned with the behavior of matter and energy under extreme conditions or on the very small scale. |
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