An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 699
  ۱) مدل، ترزال؛ ۲) مدل‌ساختن، ترزالیدن   
1) (n.) model, tarzâl; 2) (v.) model sâxtan, tarzâlidan

Fr.: 1) modèle; 2) modéliser   

1a) A mathematical representation of a process, system, or object developed to understand its behavior or to make predictions. The representation always involves certain simplifications and assumptions. See also → theory, → hypothesis.
1b) A mental image of a phenomenon using familiar terms (or images). For example, in the Bohr model the atom is visualized as a nucleus with electrons orbiting around it in a manner similar to the way that planets revolve around the Sun. While this model is use ul in understanding the atom, it is an over-simplified description of a real atom and does not describe/predict all of its attributes (G. Smooth, Lawrence Berkeley Lab website).
2) To make or construct a model of.

M.Fr. modelle (Fr. modèle), from It. modello "a model, mold," from V.L. *modellus, from L. modulus "measure, standard," from modus "manner, measure" (cf. Av. mad-, → mode), PIE *med- + -ulus, → -ula.

1) Model, from Fr. modèle. Tarzâl, from tarz, → mode + -âl, → -al.
2) Model sâxtan, from model + sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach").
Tarzâlidan, from tarzâl + -idan infinitive suffix.

model dependence
  وابستگی به مدل، ~ ~ ترزال   
vâbastegi bé model, ~ ~ tarzâl

Fr.: dépendance du modèle   

In a theoretical analysis, the solution that does not correctly treat the intervening parameters, or neglects some crucial factors.

model. dependence, noun of → dependent.

  مدل‌سازی، ترزالش   
modelsâzi, tarzâleš

Fr.: modélisation   

The simulation of a process, concept, or operation of a system often implemented by a computer program and making use of a mathematical treatment.

Verbal noun of → model

novin (#)

Fr.: moderne   

1) Relating or belonging to present and recent time. → modern physics.
2) Of or pertaining to the historical period following the Middle Ages.
3) Of the latest, most advanced kind, or using the most advanced equipment and techniques available.

From M.Fr. moderne, from L.L. modernus, from L. modo "lately, just now," from modo "to the measure," ablative of modus "manner, measure," → mode.

Novin, from now, → new, + -in adj. suffix, as in dirin, pasin, barin, kehin, mehin, behin, zirin, zabarin, pâyin, bâlâyin.

modern physics
  فیزیک ِ نوین   
fizik-e novin (#)

Fr.: physique moderne   

The physics developed since about 1900, which includes Einstein's → relativity theory and → quantum mechanics, as distinguished from → classical physics. Much of modern physics is concerned with the behavior of matter and energy under extreme conditions or on the very small scale.

modern; → physics.


Fr.: modernisme   

1) Modern spirit or character.
2) Modern usage, expression, or trait.
3) In early 20th century art, literature, and architecture, a movement characterized by the use of unconventional subject matter and style, experimental technique, etc.

modern + → -ism.


Fr.: moderniste   

1) An admirer of modern ideas, ways, etc.
2) Someone who practises or advocates → Modernism.

modern + → -ist.

novini (#)

Fr.: modernité   

1) The quality of being → modern.
2) A rather diffuse term with many meanings depending on the disciplinary context. Generally, modernity refers to the cultural, intellectual, and economic consequences of the → Enlightenment and the epoch with which they are associated. Modernity is the end result of the → modernization process.

modern + → -ity.

novineš (#)

Fr.: modernisation   

1) The act of modernizing; the state of being modernized; something modernized.
2) A pattern of social and economic change initiated in the 17th century in Western Europe and subsequently extended to many other parts of the world. Its characteristics include secularization, rationalization in political and economic life, industrialization, urbanization, and increased level of popular involvement in public affairs.

Verbal noun of → modernize; → -tion.

novinidan (#)

Fr.: moderniser   

To bring something up to modern standards, or adapt it to modern style, conditions, etc.

modern + → -ize.

  واترز، واترزش   
vâtarz, vâtarzeš

Fr.: modification   

An act or instance of modifying; the state of being modified; partial alteration.

Verbal noun of → modify.

modified Julian date (MJD)
  گاهداد ِ ژولی‌ین ِ واترزیده   
gâhdâd-e žulian-e vâtarzidé

Fr.: date julienne modifiée   

A modification of the Julian Date, representing the number of days that have elapsed since midnight (instead of noon) at the beginning of Wednesday November 17, 1858. MJD = JD - 2,400,000.5 The reason for adopting that date is the fact that the Julian Day 2,400,000 just happens to be November 17, 1858.

modify; → Julian date.

MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND)
  توانیک ِ نیوتنی ِ واترزیده   
tavânik-e niyutoni-ye vâtarzidé

Fr.: dynamique newtonienne modifiée   

A modification of the Newton's law of gravitation below a critical acceleration of about 1.2 x 10-8 cm s-2, where the gravitational force scales as 1/r instead of 1/r2. Originally put forward to describe the rotation curves of galaxies with no need to assume any dark matter, MOND is now tested at larger cosmological scales (Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365).

modify; → Newtonian dynamics.

modified wind momentum
  جنباک ِ باد ِ واترزیده   
jonbâk-e bâd-e vâtarzidé

Fr.: moment angulaire de vent modifié   

A quantity defined as Π = (dM/dt) v R0.5 for a star with radius R having a wind with → terminal velocity v and a → mass loss rate dM/dt. There is a tight linear relation between the modified wind momenta and the stellar luminosities for → Population IO stars. See also → wind momentum.

modify; → wind; → momentum.

  واترزنده، واترزگر   
vâtarzandé, vâtarzgar

Fr.: modificateur   

In data processing, a quantity used to alter an instruction in a prescribed way to produce the instruction actually obeyed.

Agent noun of → modify.


Fr.: modifier   

To change somewhat the form or qualities of; alter partially; amend.
To reduce or lessen in degree or extent; moderate; soften:

From O.Fr. modifier, from L. modificare "to impose a rule or pattern, regulate, restrain," from modus "measure, rhythm, song, manner" PIE base *med-/*met- "to measure, limit, consider, advise, take appropriate measures" + root of facere "to make"

Vâtarzidan, from vâ- prefix denoting "reversal, opposition; separation; repetition; open; off; away" (variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-; O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind") + tarz "mode, manner" + -idan infinitive suffix.

degarâhangidan (#)

Fr.: moduler   

General: To regulate by or adjust to a certain measure or proportion; tone down. Physics: To alter the value of some parameter characterizing a periodic oscillation. → modulation.

From L. modulatus pr.p. of modulari "to regulate, measure off properly," from modulus "small measure," diminutive of modus "measure, manner," → mode.

Degarâhangidan, from degar "other, another," denoting change, variant digar (Mid.Pers. dit, ditikar "the other, the second;" O.Pers. duvitiya- "second," Av. daibitya-, bitya- "second;" Skt. dvitiya- "second," PIE *duitiio- "second") + âhang "melody, pitch, tune, modulation" (ultimately from Proto-Iranian *āhang-, from prefix ā- + *hang-, from PIE base *sengwh- "to sing, make an incantation;" cf. O.H.G. singan; Ger. singen; Goth. siggwan; Swed. sjunga; O.E. singan "to chant, sing, tell in song;" maybe cognate with Gk. omphe "voice; oracle") + -idan infinitive suffix.

modulated wave
  موج ِ دگر‌آهنگیده   
mowj-e degarâhangidé (#)

Fr.: onde modulée   

A combination of two or more waves resulting in the production of frequencies not present in the original waves, the new frequencies being usually the sums and differences of integral multiples of the frequencies in the original waves.
A wave which varies in some characteristic in accordance with the variations of a modulating signal. Compare continuous wave. See modulation

Modulated, p.p. of → modulate; → wave.

degarâhangeš (#)

Fr.: modulation   

General: The modification of some property of a phenomenon by another distinct phenomenon.
Physics: Variation of some characteristic (amplitude, phase, or frequency) of a radio wave, called the carrier wave, in accordance with instantaneous values of another wave, called the modulating wave. → amplitude modulation; → frequency modulation.
Optics: A synonym for contrast, particularly when applied to a series of parallel lines and spaces imaged by a lens.

Verbal noun of → modulate.

modulation transfer function (MTF)
  کریای ِ تراوژ ِ دگر‌آهنگش   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e degarâhangeš

Fr.: fonction de transfert de modulation   

A measure of the ability of an optical system to reproduce (transfer) various levels of detail from the object to the image, as shown by the degree of contrast (modulation) in the image. → optical transfer function.

modulation; → transfer; → function.

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