An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 663
multiplanet system
  راژمان ِ بس-سیاره‌ای   
râžmân-e bas-sayâre-yi

Fr.: système multi-planète   

A stellar system with more than one orbiting planet.

multi-; → planet; → system.

multiple
  بستا، بستایی   
bastâ, bastâyi

Fr.: multiple   

Consisting of, having, or involving several or many individuals, parts, elements, etc.
Math.: A number that contains another number an integral number of times without a remainder: 25 is a multiple of 5.

From Fr. multiple, from L.L. multiplus "manifold," from L. → multi- "many, much" + -plus "fold," from base of plicare "to fold, twist."

Bastâ-, from bas "many, much" (Mid.Pers. vas "many, much;" O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + "fold, plait, ply; piece, part," also a multiplicative suffix; Mid.Pers. tâg "piece, part."

multiple exposures
  نورداد ِ بستایی   
nurdâd-e bastâyi

Fr.: poses multiples   

The division of a relatively long exposure into several successive shorter ones, e.g. to avoid detector saturation.

multiple; → exposure.

multiple integral
  درستال ِ بستایی   
dorostâl-e bastâyi

Fr.: intégrale multiple   

A series of successive integrations in which the integral operator acts on the result of preceding integration.

multiple; → integral.

multiple scattering
  پراکنش ِ بستایی   
parâkaneš-e bastâyi

Fr.: diffusion multiple   

A process of → radiative transfer in which more than one → scattering event may be of importance before → transmission, → reflection, or → absorption. In → radiation-driven winds photon scattering can take place in different → spectral lines. Each scattering occurs in a different spectral line, and successive scatterings occur at lower energies (longer wavelength). The standard theory of line driving (→ CAK model) assumes that photons can be scattered only once in the wind, which is a reasonable assumption for normal → O stars. In → Wolf-Rayet stars, where photons evolve in an atmosphere with a strong → ionization stratification, multiple scattering is important. Indeed the strength of W-R winds appears to exceed the single scattering limit.

multiple; → scattering.

multiple star
  ستاره‌ی ِ بستایی   
setâre-ye bastâyi

Fr.: étoile multiple   

A star which appears single but is in fact composed of more than two components. See also → multiple star system; → binary star; → triple star.

multiple; → star.

multiple star system
  راژمان ِ بستایی   
râšmân-e bastâyi

Fr.: système multiple   

A stellar system composed of several stars bound together by gravitational attraction and revolving around a common center of mass.

multiple; → star; → system.

multiplet
  بستایه   
bastâyé

Fr.: multiplet   

A group of spectral lines arising from transitions having a common lower energy level.

From → multi- + -plet on the model of triplet.

Bastâyé, from bastâ-multi- + euphonic -yé, from nuance suffix.

multiplicand
  بستاشو   
bastâšow

Fr.: multiplicande   

A number to be multiplied by another.

From L. multiplicandum, from multiplicandus "to be multiplied," gerundive of multiplicare, → multiply.

Bastâšow, literally "that undergoes multiplication," from bastâ, → multiple, + šow, present stem and agent noun of šodan "to become, to be, to be doing, to go, to pass," from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro."

multiplication
  بستایش   
bastâyeš

Fr.: multiplication   

In general, the process of repeatedly adding a quantity to itself a certain number of times, or any other process which has the same result.

Verbal noun of → multiply.

multiplication sign
  نشانه‌ی ِ بستایش   
nešâne-ye bastâyeš

Fr.: croix de multiplication   

The sign used to indicate multiplication, either a times sign (×), a centered dot (·), or an asterisk. The multiplication sign was introduced by William Oughtred in 1631.

multiplication; → sign.

multiplicative
  بستایشی   
bastâyeši

Fr.: multiplicatif   

Involving → multiplication.

From multiplicate, → multiply, + → -ive.

multiplicative identity
  ایدانی ِ بستایشی   
idâni-ye bastâyeši

Fr.: identité multiplicative   

The number which when used as the multiplier of another number leaves the second unchanged; one.

multiplicative; → identity.

multiplicative inverse
  وارون ِ بستایشی   
vârun-e bastâyeši

Fr.: inverse multiplicative   

The number which when used as a multiplier of another number (except 0) produces 1. For example (1/5) x 5 = 1; each of the numbers is the multiplicative inverse of the other.

multiplicative; → inverse.

multiplicity
  بستاییگی   
bastâyigi

Fr.: multiplicité   

1) The state of being multiple, made of several components.
2) In atomic and nuclear physics, the number of → levels into which the energy of an atom, molecule, or nucleus splits as a result of → Russell-Saunders coupling between → orbital angular momentum and → spin angular momentum. It is given by 2S+1, where S is the total electron → spin quantum number. The multiplicity of an energy level is indicated by a left superscript to the value of L, where L is the resultant electron orbital angular momentum of the individual electron orbital angular momenta.
3) In → statistical mechanics, the number of → microstates corresponding to a given → macrostate.

multiple; → -ity.

multiplier
  بستاگر   
bastâgar

Fr.: multiplicateur   

Arithmetic: A number by which another is multiplied. Physics: A device for intensifying some effect.

Agent noun of → multiply.

multiply
  بستاییدن   
bastâyidan

Fr.: multiplier   

To make many or manifold; increase the number, quantity, etc., of.
Arithmetic: To find the product of by multiplication.

O.Fr. multiplier, from L. multiplicare "to increase," from multiplex (gen. multiplicis) "having many folds, many times as great in number," from multi- "many" + base of plicare "to lay, fold, twist."

Bastâyidan, from bastâ, → multiple, + -idan infinitive suffix.

multipole
  بس‌قطبه   
basqotbé

Fr.: multipôle   

An entity consisting of several poles.

multi-; → pole.

multipole index
  دیشن ِ بس‌قطبه   
dišan-e basqotbé

Fr.: indice multipolaire   

A variable used in → spherical harmonic expansions. Each spherical harmonic is characterized by its multipole index l: l = 0 for a → monopole, l = 1 for a → dipole, and so on. It is used in particular to describe the → cosmic microwave background anisotropy: ΔT/T0 (θ,φ) = Σ almYlm(θ,φ), where θ and φ are the → spherical polar coordinates, Ylm is the → spherical harmonic functions, and the sum runs over l = 1, 2, ..., ∞ and m = -l, ..., l, where the multipole index l corresponds to angular scales ≅ 180°/l.

multipole; → index.

multipole moment
  گشتاور ِ بس‌قطبه   
gaštâvar-e basqotbé

Fr.: moment multipolaire   

The quantity that gives the electric potential field due to a distribution of charges, such as a → dipole, → quadrupole, → octupole, etc. A multipole moment usually involves powers of the distance to the origin, as well as some angular dependence.

multi-; → pole; → moment.

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