An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 663
multitude
  بسینه   
basiné

Fr.: multitude   

1) A great number.
2) A great number of people gathered together; crowd; throng.
3) The state or character of being many; numerousness.

M.E., from O.Fr. multitude and directly from L. multitudo "a great number, a crowd; the common people," from multus "many, much," → multi-, + suffix -tudo "-tude."

Basiné, from basin + superlative of bas "many, much," → multi-, + suffix -in + noun/nuance suffix (as bišiné, kaminé, etc.).

multiverse
  گیتی‌گان   
gitigân

Fr.: multivers   

A → hypothetical set of → multiple universes, including our → Universe, that together comprise all of physical reality.

Initially coined by William James (1895) "an alternative to universe meant to convey absence of order and unity." In modern cosmology coined from -verse in → universe, by replacing uni- with multi- to denote "multiple universes."

Gitigân, from giti, → universe, + -gân multiplicity suffix.

multiwire proportional chamber
  اتاقک ِ بسیار-سیم ِ برپارشی   
otâqak-e besyâr-sim-e barpâreši

Fr.: chambre proportionnelle multifils   

Same as → Charpak's detector.

multi-; → wire; → proportional; → chamber.

muon
  موءون   
muon (#)

Fr.: muon   

A short-lived → elementary particle with negative → electric charge, represented by the symbol μ-. The muon was discovered in 1936 by Carl Anderson (1905-1991) in → cosmic rays. It shares several properties with the electron: it is a → lepton with the same charge and → spin as the electron. But it is heavier than the electron (105 MeV/c2), about 200 times more massive. The muon is instable and decays after 2.197 × 10-6 s into → electron, → neutrino, and → antineutrino-e- + νμ + anti νe) .

A shortening of mu meson, from mu the 12th letter of the Gk. alphabet, + → meson.

muon telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ موءونی   
teleskop-e muoni

Fr.: télescope muonique   

An → instrument used in → geophysics to determine the average → density of geological bodies by measuring the → attenuation produced by → rocks on the flux of → atmospheric muons. This density muon → radiography is or example used to study the physical conditions inside → volcanoes.

muon; → telescope.

mural
  دیواری   
divâri (#)

Fr.: mural   

Of, relating to, or resembling a wall.

From M.Fr. muraille, from L. muralia, neut. pl. o f muralis "of a wall," from murus "wall."

Divâri "of a wall," from divâr "wall," from Mid.Pers. dîvâr "wall;" related to Mid.Pers. bâr, var "enclosure, defences, fortress;" Mod.Pers. bâru "wall, rampart, fortification; fort; tower;" O.Pers. didā- "wall, stronghold, fortress;" Av. var- "castle," from var- "to cover, conceil;" Proto-Iranian *dida-vāra-; cf. Skt. dehī- "wall;" Gk. teikhos "wall;" E. dike, ditch.

mural instrument
  سازال ِ دیواری   
sâzâl-e divâri

Fr.: instrument mural   

An angle measuring device mounted on or built into a wall. For astronomical purposes, these walls were oriented so they lie precisely on a meridian.

mural; → instrument.

mural quadrant
  چارَکان ِ دیواری   
cârakân-e divâri (#)

Fr.: quadrant mural   

A → mural instrument used to determine stellar positions. The quadrant consisted of a wall supporting a 90° graduated arc carefully oriented to the meridian. By means of a movable arm equipped with a sight, the altitude of a star could be determined at meridian passage.

mural; → quadrant.

murder
  ۱) غنه؛ غنه کردن، آغندن   
1) qané; 2) qané kardan, âqandan

Fr.: 1) meurtre; 2) assassiner   

1) The crime of unlawfully killing a person especially with malice aforethought.
2) To kill (a human being) unlawfully and with premeditated malice (Merriam-Webster).

M.E., from O.E. morðor "secret killing of a person, unlawful killing;" cf. O.Sax. morth, O.Fris. morth, O.Nor. morð, M.Du. moort, Du. moord, Ger. Mord "murder;" akin to Pers. mordan, marg, → death.

Qané, from Av. -γna- "slaying, strike;" Skt. ghana- "slaying;" Gk. phonos "murder;" Proto-Ir. *gan- "to strike to;" (Zazaki Kor) gin- "to strike, hit;" Ossetic (I.) qæn, (D.) ænæ "wound, fracture," also (D.) "guilt, transgression;" PIE *gwhono- "slaying."

murderer
  غنه‌کار   
qanekâr

Fr.: meurtrier, assassin   

One who murders; especially : one who commits the crime of murder (Merriam-Webster).

murder; → -er.

murderous
  غنه‌ناک   
qanenâk

Fr.: meurtrier   

Having the purpose or capability of murder. Characterized by or causing murder or bloodshed (Merriam-Webster).

murder; → -ous.

Musca
  مگس   
Magas (#)

Fr.: Mouche   

The Fly. A minor constellation in the south → circumpolar region, lying south of → Crux, at 13h right ascension, 70° south declination. Its brightest star is of magnitude 2.7. Abbreviation: Mus; genitive: Muscae.

L. musca "fly" (Fr. mouche); Gk. muia "fly;" O.H.G. mucka "mosquito;" from PIE base *mu-.

Magas "a fly" (dialectal Aftari maqes; Tabari maqez, mahaz, maxši; Kurd. mêš, megez); Mid.Pers. magas, maxs "fly;" Av. maxši- "fly, mosquito;" cf. Skt. maśáka-, maks- "fly, mosquito;" PIE base *mako-.

mutation
  موتش   
muteš

Fr.: mutation   

A sudden, random change in the genetic material of a cell. → commute.

From L. mutationem (nominative mutatio) "a changing," from mutatus, p.p. of mutare "to change," from PIE base *mei- "to change, go, move;" cf. Av. miθô "inverted, false," miθaoxta- "wrong spoken;" Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins, meets," mith- "to alternate, meet," mithás "opposite, in opposition;" L. meare "to go, pass," mutuus "done in exchange;" Goth. maidjan "to change;" E. prefix mis- (in mistake).

Muteš, verbal noun of mutidan, from L. mutare, cognate with Av. miθô, as above, + -idan infinitive suffix.

mutual
  دوسویه   
dosuyé (#)

Fr.: mutuel   

Possessed, experienced, performed, etc., by each of two or more with respect to the other; reciprocal.

M.E., from M.Fr. mutuel, from L. mutu(us) "reciprocal, done in exchange," from PIE base *mei- "to change," → mutation.

Dosuyé from do, → two, + su "side, direction," from Mid.Pers. sôk "direction, side" + nuance suffix .

mutually exclusive
  دوسویه سکلاننده   
dosuyé sokolânandé

Fr.: mutuellement exclusif   

In → probability theory, of or pertaining to two → events A and B, if they cannot occur together, i.e. the occurrence of one precludes the occurrence of the other: A ∩ B = 0.

mutual; → -ly; → exclusive.

myopia
  نزدیک‌بینی   
nazdikbini (#)

Fr.: myopie   

A vision defect commonly referred to as nearsightedness. The defective condition results when the image of a distant object is focused in front of the retina by the relaxed eye. It can be corrected by introducing a negative lens in front of the eye.

L., from Gk. myopia "near-sightedness," from myops "near-sighted," from myein "to shut" + ops (genitive opos) "eye."

Nazdikbini, noun from nazdikbin "near-sighted," from nazdik "near," from nazd "near" + -ik, → -ic (Mid.Pers. nazd, nazdik; Av. nas- "to come near, approach, reach," nazdišta- "nearest, next," nazdyo "nearer to;" cf. Skt. nas- "to approach, to reach") + bin "to see; seer" (present stem of didan; Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see").

mysterious
  شارده‌ناک   
šârdenâk

Fr.: mystérieux   

1) Full of, characterized by, or involving mystery.
2) Implying or suggesting a mystery (Dictionary.com).

mystery; → -ous.

mystery
  ۱) شارده؛ ۲) شارده‌ناک   
1) šârdé; 2) šârdenâk

Fr.: mystère   

1) Anything that is kept → secret or remains unexplained or unknown.
2) Obscure, puzzling, or → mysterious quality or character (Dictionary.com).

M.E. mysterie, from L. mysterium "secret rite, secret worship; a secret thing," from Gk. mysterion "secret rite or doctrine," from mystes "one who has been initiated," from myein "to close, shut."

Šârdé, from Laki šârd "concealed, hidden, secret," âšârden "to hide, conceal;" cf. Kurd. hašâr, hâšâr "hidden, concealed," šârdinawa, šârây "to hide," Kâzeruni ker "hidden," Av. sar- "shelter;" Proto-Ir. *sar- "to conceal, hide;" Skt. śárman- "cover, protection;" L. celare "to conceal from view;" Goth. huljan "to cover, conceal;" O.H.G. helan "to hide;" E. helmet; PIE *kel- "to conceal, hide, cover."

mystic
  ۱) شارده‌آمیز، شارده‌گین؛ ۲) شارده‌ورز، شارده‌باور   
1) šârdeâmiz, šârdegin; 2) šârdevarz, šârde-bâvar

Fr.: mystique   

1a) Involving or characterized by esoteric, otherworldly, or symbolic practices or content, as certain religious ceremonies and art; spiritually significant; ethereal.
1b) Of the nature of or pertaining to mysteries known only to the initiated.
1c) Of occult character, power, or significance.
2a) A person who claims to attain, or believes in the possibility of attaining, insight into mysteries transcending ordinary human knowledge, as by direct communication with the divine or immediate intuition in a state of spiritual ecstasy.
2b) A person initiated into religious mysteries (Dictionary.com).

M.E. mystik, from O.Fr. mistique "mysterious, full of mystery," from L. mysticus, from Gk. mystikos "secret, mystic, connected with the mysteries," from mystes "an initiate into the mysteries," + -ikos, → -ic.

mysticism
  شارده‌ورزی، شارده‌باوری   
šârdevarzi, šârdebâvari

Fr.: mysticisme   

1) The beliefs, ideas, or mode of thought of mystics.
2) A doctrine of an immediate spiritual intuition of truths believed to transcend ordinary understanding, or of a direct, intimate union of the soul with God through contemplation or ecstasy.
3) Obscure thought or speculation (Dictionary.com).

mystic; → -ism.

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