An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 672

Fr.: multiplicatif   

Involving → multiplication.

From multiplicate, → multiply, + → -ive.

multiplicative identity
  ایدانی ِ بستایشی   
idâni-ye bastâyeši

Fr.: identité multiplicative   

The number which when used as the multiplier of another number leaves the second unchanged; one.

multiplicative; → identity.

multiplicative inverse
  وارون ِ بستایشی   
vârun-e bastâyeši

Fr.: inverse multiplicative   

The number which when used as a multiplier of another number (except 0) produces 1. For example (1/5) x 5 = 1; each of the numbers is the multiplicative inverse of the other.

multiplicative; → inverse.


Fr.: multiplicité   

1) The state of being multiple, made of several components.
2) In atomic and nuclear physics, the number of → levels into which the energy of an atom, molecule, or nucleus splits as a result of → Russell-Saunders coupling between → orbital angular momentum and → spin angular momentum. It is given by 2S+1, where S is the total electron → spin quantum number. The multiplicity of an energy level is indicated by a left superscript to the value of L, where L is the resultant electron orbital angular momentum of the individual electron orbital angular momenta.
3) In → statistical mechanics, the number of → microstates corresponding to a given → macrostate.

multiple; → -ity.


Fr.: multiplicateur   

Arithmetic: A number by which another is multiplied. Physics: A device for intensifying some effect.

Agent noun of → multiply.


Fr.: multiplier   

To make many or manifold; increase the number, quantity, etc., of.
Arithmetic: To find the product of by multiplication.

O.Fr. multiplier, from L. multiplicare "to increase," from multiplex (gen. multiplicis) "having many folds, many times as great in number," from multi- "many" + base of plicare "to lay, fold, twist."

Bastâyidan, from bastâ, → multiple, + -idan infinitive suffix.


Fr.: multipôle   

An entity consisting of several poles.

multi-; → pole.

multipole index
  دیشن ِ بس‌قطبه   
dišan-e basqotbé

Fr.: indice multipolaire   

A variable used in → spherical harmonic expansions. Each spherical harmonic is characterized by its multipole index l: l = 0 for a → monopole, l = 1 for a → dipole, and so on. It is used in particular to describe the → cosmic microwave background anisotropy: ΔT/T0 (θ,φ) = Σ almYlm(θ,φ), where θ and φ are the → spherical polar coordinates, Ylm is the → spherical harmonic functions, and the sum runs over l = 1, 2, ..., ∞ and m = -l, ..., l, where the multipole index l corresponds to angular scales ≅ 180°/l.

multipole; → index.

multipole moment
  گشتاور ِ بس‌قطبه   
gaštâvar-e basqotbé

Fr.: moment multipolaire   

The quantity that gives the electric potential field due to a distribution of charges, such as a → dipole, → quadrupole, → octupole, etc. A multipole moment usually involves powers of the distance to the origin, as well as some angular dependence.

multi-; → pole; → moment.


Fr.: multitude   

1) A great number.
2) A great number of people gathered together; crowd; throng.
3) The state or character of being many; numerousness.

M.E., from O.Fr. multitude and directly from L. multitudo "a great number, a crowd; the common people," from multus "many, much," → multi-, + suffix -tudo "-tude."

Basiné, from basin + superlative of bas "many, much," → multi-, + suffix -in + noun/nuance suffix (as bišiné, kaminé, etc.).


Fr.: multivers   

A → hypothetical set of → multiple universes, including our → Universe, that together comprise all of physical reality.

Initially coined by William James (1895) "an alternative to universe meant to convey absence of order and unity." In modern cosmology coined from -verse in → universe, by replacing uni- with multi- to denote "multiple universes."

Gitigân, from giti, → universe, + -gân multiplicity suffix.

multiwire proportional chamber
  اتاقک ِ بسیار-سیم ِ برپارشی   
otâqak-e besyâr-sim-e barpâreši

Fr.: chambre proportionnelle multifils   

Same as → Charpak's detector.

multi-; → wire; → proportional; → chamber.

muon (#)

Fr.: muon   

A short-lived → elementary particle with negative → electric charge, represented by the symbol μ-. The muon was discovered in 1936 by Carl Anderson (1905-1991) in → cosmic rays. It shares several properties with the electron: it is a → lepton with the same charge and → spin as the electron. But it is heavier than the electron (105 MeV/c2), about 200 times more massive. The muon is instable and decays after 2.197 × 10-6 s into → electron, → neutrino, and → antineutrino-e- + νμ + anti νe) .

A shortening of mu meson, from mu the 12th letter of the Gk. alphabet, + → meson.

muon telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ موءونی   
teleskop-e muoni

Fr.: télescope muonique   

An → instrument used in → geophysics to determine the average → density of geological bodies by measuring the → attenuation produced by → rocks on the flux of → atmospheric muons. This density muon → radiography is or example used to study the physical conditions inside → volcanoes.

muon; → telescope.

divâri (#)

Fr.: mural   

Of, relating to, or resembling a wall.

From M.Fr. muraille, from L. muralia, neut. pl. o f muralis "of a wall," from murus "wall."

Divâri "of a wall," from divâr "wall," from Mid.Pers. dîvâr "wall;" related to Mid.Pers. bâr, var "enclosure, defences, fortress;" Mod.Pers. bâru "wall, rampart, fortification; fort; tower;" O.Pers. didā- "wall, stronghold, fortress;" Av. var- "castle," from var- "to cover, conceil;" Proto-Iranian *dida-vāra-; cf. Skt. dehī- "wall;" Gk. teikhos "wall;" E. dike, ditch.

mural instrument
  سازال ِ دیواری   
sâzâl-e divâri

Fr.: instrument mural   

An angle measuring device mounted on or built into a wall. For astronomical purposes, these walls were oriented so they lie precisely on a meridian.

mural; → instrument.

mural quadrant
  چارَکان ِ دیواری   
cârakân-e divâri (#)

Fr.: quadrant mural   

A → mural instrument used to determine stellar positions. The quadrant consisted of a wall supporting a 90° graduated arc carefully oriented to the meridian. By means of a movable arm equipped with a sight, the altitude of a star could be determined at meridian passage.

mural; → quadrant.

  ۱) غنه؛ غنه کردن، آغندن   
1) qané; 2) qané kardan, âqandan

Fr.: 1) meurtre; 2) assassiner   

1) The crime of unlawfully killing a person especially with malice aforethought.
2) To kill (a human being) unlawfully and with premeditated malice (Merriam-Webster).

M.E., from O.E. morðor "secret killing of a person, unlawful killing;" cf. O.Sax. morth, O.Fris. morth, O.Nor. morð, M.Du. moort, Du. moord, Ger. Mord "murder;" akin to Pers. mordan, marg, → death.

Qané, from Av. -γna- "slaying, strike;" Skt. ghana- "slaying;" Gk. phonos "murder;" Proto-Ir. *gan- "to strike to;" (Zazaki Kor) gin- "to strike, hit;" Ossetic (I.) qæn, (D.) ænæ "wound, fracture," also (D.) "guilt, transgression;" PIE *gwhono- "slaying."


Fr.: meurtrier, assassin   

One who murders; especially : one who commits the crime of murder (Merriam-Webster).

murder; → -er.


Fr.: meurtrier   

Having the purpose or capability of murder. Characterized by or causing murder or bloodshed (Merriam-Webster).

murder; → -ous.

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