An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 672
Markarian galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارکاریان   
kahkešân-e Markarian (#)

Fr.: galaxie de Markarian   

A galaxy with abnormally strong emission in the ultraviolet continuum and broad emission lines arising in a bright, semi-stellar nucleus.

Named after B. E. Markarian (1913-1985), an Armenian astronomer who made a catalog of such galaxies (1967-81); → galaxy.

Markarian's chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکاریان   
zanjire-ye Markarian

Fr.: chaîne de Markarian   

A string of a dozen or so galaxies in the central region of the → Vigo cluster. The chain lies to the right of the cluster's dominant galaxy M87 and extends over nearly 2° on the sky. The chain's brightest galaxies are the lenticulars M84 and M86. At least seven galaxies in the chain appear to move coherently, although others appear to be superposed by chance.

Markarian; → chain.

Markarian's eyes
  چشمهای ِ مارکاریان   
cašmhâ-ye Markarian

Fr.: les yeux de Markarian   

Two → interacting galaxies, NGC 4438 and NGC 4435, located in → Markarian's chain of galaxies in the → Virgo cluster of galaxies. About 50 million → light-years away, the two galaxies are about 100,000 light-years apart. Gravitational → tidal forces from the → close encounter have ripped away at their stars, gas, and dust. The more massive NGC 4438 kept much of the material ripped out in the collision, while material from the smaller NGC 4435 was more easily lost.

Markarian galaxy; → eye.

Markov chain
  زنجیره‌ی ِ مارکوف   
zanjire-ye Markov (#)

Fr.: chaîne de Markov   

A → stochastic process, based on the classical → random walk concept, in which the probabilities of occurrence of various future states depend only on the previous state of the system and not on any of earlier states. Also called Markov process and Markovian principle.

Named after Andrey Andreyevich Markov (1856-1922), a Russian mathematician, who introduced this model in 1906; → chain.

Mars
  بهرام   
Bahrâm (#)

Fr.: Mars   

Fourth planet from Sun and the seventh largest. Mass 6.42 × 1026 g (0.11 Earth's); radius 3397 km. Mean distance from Sun 1.52 A.U.. Sidereal period 687 days; synodic period 779.9 days. Surface temperature 248 K., rotational period 24h37m22s.6. Obliquity 23°59'. Atmosphere more than 90% CO2, traces of O2, CO, H2O. Two tiny satellites (Phobos and Deimos), both of which are locked in synchronous rotation with Mars.

Late M.E., from L. Mars the Roman god of war, Ares in Gk. mythology.

Bahrâm, from Mid.Pers. Vahrâm, from Vahrân "god of victory," from Av. vərəθraγna- "victory, breaking the defence, the god of victory." The first element vərəθra- "shield, defensive power," cf. Skt. vrtrá- "defence, name of a demon slain by Indra," Arm. vahagan name of a god (loanword from Iranian). The second element γna-, from Av., also O.Pers., jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Mod.Pers. zadan, zan- "to strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."

Mars datum
  فرازبن ِ بهرام   
farâzbon-e Bahrâm

Fr.:   

The → zero point of elevation on Mars. It is the elevation at which the atmosphere pressure is 6.1 millibars, or 610 → Pascals. Atmosphere pressure has to be used because Mars has no ocean, and "sea level" cannot be used like on Earth. More formally, the datum is a fourth-order, fourth-degree surface of equal → gravitational potential (determined from the Viking orbiter spacecraft) such that the pressure of the atmosphere is 6.1 millibars (source: Lunar and Planetary Institute, USRA).

Mars; → datum.

Mars Trojan
  ترویایی ِ بهرام   
troyâ-yi-ye Bahrâm

Fr.: trojan de Mars   

A member of the family of → asteroids located at either of the stable → Lagrangian points (L4 or L5) of the orbit of → Mars.

Mars; → Trojan asteroid.

Martian
  بهرامی، مریخی   
Bahrâmi (#), Merixi (#)

Fr.: martien   

Of, relating to, or like the planet → Mars.

M.E. marcien, from L. Marti(us) of, belonging to → Mars + -an a suffix of adjectives.

Martian meteorite
  شخانه‌ی ِ بهرامی، شهاب‌سنگ ِ ~   
šaxâne-ye Bahrâmi, šahâbsang-e ~

Fr.: météorite martienne   

A piece of rock that was ejected from the Martian surface into space by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and landed on Earth. So far about 100 Martian meteorites have been collected. These meteorites have elemental and isotopic compositions that match those of the Martian crust as measured by NASA's Mars exploration missions.

Martian; → meteorite.

Martian plume
  پرک ِ بهرام   
parrak-e Bahrâm

Fr.: plume de Mars   

A slender, cloudy projection sometimes seen to extend from the surface of → Mars to very high altitudes. Noted and confirmed by amateur astronomers on photos of Mars in March 2012, possibly similar plumes have been found on archived images as far back as 1997. The plumes reach 200 km up, which seems too high for them to be related to wind-blown surface dust. Since one plume lasted for more than 10 days, it seemed too long lasting to be related to → aurora. The origin of this phenomenon is not yet known.

Martian; → plume.

mascon
  جرمتود   
jermtud

Fr.: mascon   

A region on the surface of the → Moon where the → gravitational attraction is slightly higher than normal due to the presence of dense rock.

Short for mass concentration; → mass; → concentration.

masculine
  نرین   
narin (#)

Fr.: masculin   

1) Having qualities appropriate to or usually associated with a man.
2) Of, relating to, or constituting the gender that ordinarily includes most words or grammatical forms referring to males (merriam-webster.com).

M.E. masculin, from O.Fr. masculin "of the male sex," from L. masculinus "male, of masculine gender," from masculus "male, masculine; worthy of a man," diminutive of mas "male person, male," of unknown origin.

Narin, from nar "male," from Mid.Pers. nar, "male, manly;" Av. nar- "male, man," nairya- "male, manly;" cf. Skt nara- "male, man."

maser
  میزر   
meyzer (#)

Fr.: maser   

1) A source of very intense, narrow-band, coherent microwave radiation involving → stimulated emission, as in the → laser.
2) A device that generates such radiation.
3) In astronomy, maser emission detected from a number of molecules and associated with several environments: the vicinity of newly forming stars and → H II regions (OH, water, SiO, and methanol masers); the circumstellar shells of evolved stars, i.e. red giants and supergiants (OH, water, and SiO masers); the shocked regions where supernova remnants are expanding into an adjacent molecular cloud (OH masers); and the nuclei and jets of active galaxies (OH and water masers). The hydroxyl radical (OH) was the first interstellar maser detected (Weinreb et al. 1963).

Maser stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; → laser.

maser emission
  گسیل ِ میزری   
gosil-e meyzeri (#)

Fr.: émission maser   

An emission arising from the → maser process.

maser; → emission.

mask
  ۱) ماسک؛ ۲) ماسک زدن   
1) mâsk (#); 2) mâsk zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) masque; 2) masquer   

1) Something that serves to cover or conceal.
Electronics: A pattern used to control the configuration of conducting material deposited or etched onto a semiconductor chip.
2) Electronics: To override one signal with a stronger one.

From M.Fr. masque "covering to hide or guard the face," from It. maschera, from M.L. masca "mask, specter, nightmare," of uncertain origin.

1) Mâsk, loan from Fr., as above; 2) with verb zadan "to make, to do," originally "to strike, beat; to do; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

masking
  ماسک‌زد   
mâskzad

Fr.: masque, masquage   

1) A method of improving → spatial resolution of images. → pupil masking; → unsharp masking.
2) Computers: The process of specifying a number of values that allow extracting desired information from a set of characters or bits while suppressing the undesired information.

Verbal noun of → mask.

mass
  ۱) جرم، غند؛ ۲) توده، انبوه   
1) jerm (#), qond (#); 2) tudé (#), anbuh (#)

Fr.: masse   

1) A measure of the amount of material in an object, defined either by the inertial properties of the object or by its gravitational influence on other bodies. See also → inertial mass, → gravitational mass.
2) A considerable assemblage, number, or quantity.

From O.Fr. masse "lump," from L. massa "kneaded dough, lump," from Gk. maza "barley cake, lump, mass, ball," related to massein "to knead."

Jerm, from Ar. jirm.
Qond "assembled, collected; a crowd," related to gondé "coarse, thick; big;" Mid.Pers. gund "troop, group, gathering;" loaned into Arm. gund and Ar. jund.
Tudé "heap, stack, tumulus;" cf. Kurd. tavda "all, total;" Tati tâya "heap, mass;" Sogd. tuδē "heap, mass." Perhaps related to PIE *teuta- "people, tribe;" cf. Lith. tauta, Oscan touto, O.Irish tuath, Goth. þiuda, O.E. þeod "people, folk, race."
Anbuh "numerous, abundant," from Proto-Iranian *ham-buH- "to come together," from ham- "together," → com- + *buH- "to be , become," Av. ham.bauu- "to come together, unite," from ham- as above + bauu-, bu- "to be, become," O.Pers. bav- "to be, become," Mod.Pers. budan "to be," Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," PIE base *bheu-, *bhu- "to grow, become;" cf. Gk. phu- "become," P.Gmc. *beo-, *beu-, E. be.

mass absorption coefficient
  همگر ِ درشم ِ جرمی   
hamgar-e daršm-e jermi

Fr.: coefficient d'absorption de masse   

A measure of the rate of absorption of radiation, expressed as the linear absorption coefficient divided by the density of the medium through which radiation is passing.

mass; → absorption; → coefficient.

mass defect
  کاست ِ جرم   
kâst-e jerm

Fr.: défaut de masse   

The difference between the rest mass of an atomic nucleus (made up of protons and neutrons) and the sum of the masses of its individual protons and neutrons. The mass difference is equal to the released binding energy. Also called mass deficiency

mass; → defect.

mass density
  چگالی ِ جرمی   
cagâli-ye jermi

Fr.: densité massique   

The mass per unit area of the ring material, integrated through the thickness of the ring. Sometimes called → surface density (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

mass; → density.

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