An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 360
nanotechnology
  نانو-تشنیک‌شناسی   
nâno-tašnik-šenâsi

Fr.: nanotechnologie   

The science and technology of producing and exploiting structures and systems at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 → nanometers, that is those of single atoms and molecules. Materials with such minute structures possess mechanical, optical, chemical, magnetic or electronic properties not found in ordinary materials.

nano-; → technology.

Naos (ζ Puppis)
  نایءوس   
Nâos

Fr.: Naos   

A bright, blue star of V = 2.25 in the constellation → Puppis. It is a hot → supergiant of type O5, with a → surface temperature of 42,000 K, lying 1,400 → light-years away. Naos is one of the rarest → O-type stars visible to the → naked eye.

Naos, from Gk. naos "ship," since it used to be the Zeta star of Argo Navis (Jason's vessel Argos) before becoming Zeta in Puppis.

Napierian logarithm
  لگاریتم ِ ناپیری   
logâritm-e Napieri (#)

Fr.: logarithme népérien   

Same as the → natural logarithm.

After John Laird Napier (1550-1617), the Scottish mathematician who invented logarithm; → logarithm.

narrow
  باریک   
bârik (#)

Fr.: étroit   

Of little breadth or → width.

M.E., from O.E. nearu; cf. O.S. naru "narrow," Du. naar "unpleasant;" akin to Ger. Narbe "scar," literally, "narrow mark."

Bârik, from Mid.Pers. bârîk "narrow," from O.Iranian *bāra-ya-ka-, from stem *bāra- "to cut;" cf. Av. bāra- "edge, blade," in tiži-bāra- "sharp-edged," from brī- "to cut, shave, shear;" cf. Skt. bhrī- "to hurt, injure," bhrinanti "they hurt;" O.C.S. briti "to shave;" PIE base *bhrē- "to cut, pierce."

narrow band
  باند ِ باریک، باریک‌باند   
bând-e bârik (#), bârik-bând (#)

Fr.: bande étroite   

Optics: Of a filter, same as → interference filter.
Radio.: Encompassing a small frequency range, typically less than 300 Hz.

narrow; → band.

narrow-band photometry
  شیدسنجی ِ باریک‌باند   
šidsanji-ye bârik bând

Fr.: photométrie à bande étroite   

Photometry using narrow-band filters to isolate a particular spectroscopic line or molecular band.

narrow band; → photometry.

narrow-line region
  ناحیه‌ی ِ باریک-خط   
nâhiye-ye bârik-xatt

Fr.: région à raies étroites   

The outer region of a → quasar or an → active galactic nucleus displaying narrow spectral lines. Also called Type II AGN. See also → obscuring torus.

narrow; → line; → region.

Nasireddin
  نصیر‌الدین   
Nasireddin

Fr.: Nasireddin   

A lunar → impact crater that is located in the southern part of the Moon's near side. Latitude: 41.0°S, longitude: 0.2°E, diameter: 52 km, depth: 3.35 km.

Named after the Iranian mathematician and astronomer Nasireddin Tusi (1201-1274), → Nasireddin couple.

Nasireddin couple
  جفت ِ نصیر‌الدین   
joft-e Nasireddin

Fr.: couple de Nasireddin   

A theorem put forward by the 13th century Persian mathematician and astronomer Nasireddin Tusi to generate linear motion from a combination of circular motions, and thus improve the geocentric model of Ptolemy. A circle of radius R rotates inside a circle of radius 2R. The smaller circle rotates at twice the speed of the larger one and in opposite direction. The initial tangent point will travel in linear motion back and forth along the diameter of the larger circle. A particular case of → hypocycloid curves.

Named for Nasireddin Tusi (1201-1274), director of Marâgha observatory who created the Ilkhani zij; → couple.

Nasmyth focus
  کانون ِ نسمیت   
kânun-e Nasmyth (#)

Fr.: foyer Nasmyth   

In an altazimuth-mounted telescope, a focal point to one side of the tube, created by placing a third deflecting mirror in the optical path. This extra mirror directs the beam along the altitude axis, and through a hole in the supporting trunnions. Nasmyth focus has the advantage of remaining at a fixed position relative to the telescope wherever the instrument is pointed. Moreover, bulky or heavy instruments can be mounted there on a permanent platform, which rotates only in azimuth.

Named after the inventor James Nasmyth (1808-1890), who first used it in the 19-th century.

nation
  نفان   
nafân

Fr.: nation   

A large body of people united by common descent, history, culture, or language, inhabiting a particular state. → national, → international.

Nation, from O.Fr. nacion, from L. nationem (nom. natio) "nation, stock, race," literally "that which has been born," from natus, p.p. of nasci "to be born;" cognate with Pers. zâdan, → generate.

Nafân, from Av. nāfaēna- "family," hama.nāfaēna- "of the same family," related to nāfa- "near relationship, family, navel," napāt- "grandson" (Mod.Pers. navé "grandson"); cf. Mid.Pers. nâf "family," nâfag "navel," naft "descendant, " Parthian nap "family" (Mod.Pers. nâf "navel"); Sogd. nâf "country;" Sorani Kurd. natawa (Kurmanji Kurd. netewe) "family, race, nation," from *nafata (with metathesis); cf. Skt. nábhi- "nave, navel, central part; home, origin;" Gk. anepsios "cousin, sister's son;" L. nepos "grandchild; descendant;" O.Lithuanian neputis "grandson; nephew;" O.H.G. nabalo "navel;" Ger. Nabel "navel;" O.E. nefa "grandson; descendant;" + -ân suffix denoting family relationship, as in Bâbakân "family of Bâbak."

national
  نفانی   
nafâni

Fr.: national   

Of, involving, or relating to a nation as a whole. → National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

nation; → -al.

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  سازمان ِ فضانوردی ِ آمریکا   
Sâzmân-e Fazânavardi-ye Âmrikâ

Fr.: NASA, Administration nationale de l'aéronautique et de l'espace   

A federal agency of the United States government founded in 1958 for civil aeronautical research and space exploration, superseding the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). Its goals include improving human understanding of the universe, the solar system, and Earth and establishing a permanent human presence in space. NASA is headquarted at Washington, D.C., and operates several research, development, and test facilities, as follows alphabetically: 1) Ames Research Center; 2) Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California, used for flight testing and as a landing site for the Space Shuttle; 3) Glenn Research Center at Cleveland, Ohio, concerned with aircraft and rocket propulsion; 4) Goddard Space Flight Center; 5) Jet Propulsion Laboratory; 6) Johnson Space center; 7) Kennedy Space Center; 8) Langley Research Center at Hampton, Virginia, which carries out research in aeronautics and space technology; 9) Marshall Space Flight Center; 10) the Space Telescope Science Institute; 11) Stennis Space Center, near Bay St Louis, Mississippi, for testing rocket engines; and 12) Wallops Flight Facility on Wallops Island, Virginia, which manages NASA's sounding rocket and scientific balloon programs.

national; → aeronautics; → space; administration, verbal noun of administer, from M.E. amynistre, from O.Fr. aministrer, from L. administrare "to serve, carry out, manage," from → ad- "to" + ministrare "to serve," from minister "servant, priest's assistant," from minus, minor "less," hence "subordinate," + comparative suffix *-teros.

Sâzmân, → organization; fazâyi pertaining to fazâ, → space; Âmrikâ "United State of America."

nationalism
  نفان‌باوری   
nafânbâvari

Fr.: nationalisme   

Loyalty and devotion to a nation; especially: a sense of national consciousness exalting one nation above all others and placing primary emphasis on promotion of its culture and interests as opposed to those of other nations or supranational groups (Merriam-Webster.com).

national; → -ism.

nationality
  نفانیگی   
nafânigi

Fr.: nationalité   

1) National status; specifically: a legal relationship involving allegiance on the part of an individual and usually protection on the part of the state b : membership in a particular nation.
2) Membership in a particular nation (Merriam-Webster.com).

national; → -ity.

nationalization
  نفانش   
nafâneš

Fr.: nationalisation   

The transfer of a major branch of industry or commerce from private to state ownership or control (OxfordDictionaries.com)

nationalize; → -tion.

nationalize
  نفانیدن   
nafânidan

Fr.: nationaliser   

1) To bring under the ownership or control of a nation, as industries and land (Dictionary.com).

national; → -ize.

natural
  زاستاری   
zâstâri

Fr.: naturel   

Occurring in nature; not artificially prepared. → nature.

Adj. of → nature.

natural frequency
  بسامد ِ زاستاری   
basâmad-e zâstâri

Fr.: fréquence naturelle   

Any frequency of small-amplitude oscillation for a system with a position of stable equilibrium and in the absence of external forces. In other words, the frequency of → free oscillation. Also called characteristic frequency.

natural; → frequency.

natural history
  تاریخ ِ زاستاری   
târix-e zâstâri

Fr.: histoire naturelle   

The → sciences, as → botany, → mineralogy, or → zoology, dealing with the study of all objects in → nature: used especially in reference to the beginnings of these sciences in former times (Dictionary.com).

natural; → history.

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