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nonholonomic system râžemân-e nâharudâtik Fr.: système non holonomique A mechanical system with constraints on their velocity that are not derivable from position constraints. Nonholonomic systems arise, for instance, in mechanical systems that have rolling contact (for example, the rolling of wheels without slipping) or certain kinds of sliding contact (such as the sliding of skates). They are a remarkable generalization of classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems in which one allows position constraints only. |
nonhomogeneous nâhamgen (#) Fr.: non homogène Not homogeneous. → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation. → non-; → homogeneous. |
nonhomogeneous linear differential equation hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti nâhamgen Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire non homogène A → linear differential equation if Q(x)≠ 0 on interval I. → nonhomogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation. |
nonionized nâyonidé (#) Fr.: non-ionisé The quality of an atom that has neither lost nor gained any electrons. |
nonlinear nâxatti (#) Fr.: non-linéaire Not a linear function of the relevant variables. |
nonlinear dynamics tavânik-e nâxatti Fr.: dynamique non-linéaire Same as → chaos. |
nonlinear instability nâpâydâri-ye nâxatti Fr.: instabilité non-linéaire The instability of a physical or mathematical system that arises from the nonlinear nature of relevant variables and their interactions within the system. → nonlinear; → instability. |
nonlinear system râžmân-e nâxatti Fr.: système non-linéaire A system in which small changes can result in large effects, and large changes in small effects. |
nonlinearity nâxattigi Fr.: non-linéarité The property, condition, or state of being → nonlinear. |
nonrising star setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#) Fr.: A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole. Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star. Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden." |
nonsense jafang (#) Fr.: non sense Word or language having no meaning. → absurd. Jafang "nonsense, futile." |
nonsetting star setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#) Fr.: A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star. Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star. Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible. |
nonsingular matrix mâtris-e nâtakin Fr.: matrice non singulière A → square matrix that is not a → singular matrix. |
nonviscous nâvošksân Fr.: non visqueux |
noon nimruz (#) Fr.: midi The time of day when the Sun crosses the observer's meridian and is at its highest point above the horizon. At this point, the Sun lies due south of an observer in the northern hemisphere and due north of an observer in the southern hemisphere. M.E. none; O.E. non, from L. nona hora "ninth hour" of daylight by Roman reckoning, about 3 p.m. Nimruz, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Sk. néma- "half") + ruz→ day. |
norm hanjâr (#) Fr.: norme General: A standard, model, or pattern regarded as typical. From Fr. norme, from O.Fr., from L. norma "carpenter's square, rule, pattern," of unknown origin. Hanjâr "a straight road; way, rule, law; habit, custom; conduct; a mason's rule, a plumb-line, a level;" Mid.Pers. hanjâr "right, correct;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-cara-, *han-cara- prefixed *cara- "to move, walk" (cf. Av. car- "to move, go, walk," carāni "I would go," carāt "he would go;" Mod.Pers. caridan "to graze," gozârdan "to explain," gozâreš "explanation"); cf. Skt. samcara- "passage, way, road, path; going about, moving," from prefix sam- + cara- "moving, going, walking;" Gk. pelomai "to move;" L. colere "to till, cultivate, inhabit." |
Norma Guniyâ (#) Fr.: Règle The Carpenter's Square. A small and inconspicuous southern constellation which lies between → Scorpius and → Centaurus. Its brightest star is only of magnitude 4.0. Abbreviation: Nor; genitive: Normae Initially Norma et Regula, L. translation of l'Équerre et la Règle "the Set Square and the Ruler," as named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762). Guniyâ "carpenter's square," probably related to konj "angle, corner, confined place" (variants xong "corner, angle," Tabari kânj, Kurd. kunj, Hamadâni kom) and zânu "knee" (Av. žnu-), Skt. kona- "angle, corner," Gk. gonia "angle,", gony "knee," L. genu "knee," cuneus "a wedge," Albanian (Gheg dialect) kân "angle, corner," Albanian (Toks) kënd "angle, corner;" PIE base PIE base *g(e)neu-. |
normal 1) hanjârvar, hanjârmand; 2) hanjâr; Fr.: 1) normal; 2) normale 1) Conforming to the usual standard, type, custom; not abnormal; regular; natural. From L.L. normalis "standing at right angle, in conformity with rule," from L. normalis "made according to a carpenter's square," from norma "rule, pattern," literally "carpenter's square." Hanjârvar, hanjârmand, adjectives of hanjâr, → norm. |
normal dispersion pâšeš-e hanjârmand Fr.: dispersion normale The dispersion in which a shorter wavelength is associated with a higher → refractive index. Contrasted with the → anomalous dispersion. → normal; → dispersion. |
normal distribution vâbâžeš-e hanjârvar Fr.: distribution normale A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean. Same as → Gaussian distribution. → normal; → distribution. |
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