An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 360
nonholonomic system
  راژمان ِ ناهروداتیک   
râžemân-e nâharudâtik

Fr.: système non holonomique   

A mechanical system with constraints on their velocity that are not derivable from position constraints. Nonholonomic systems arise, for instance, in mechanical systems that have rolling contact (for example, the rolling of wheels without slipping) or certain kinds of sliding contact (such as the sliding of skates). They are a remarkable generalization of classical Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems in which one allows position constraints only.

non-; → holonomic; → system.

nonhomogeneous
  ناهمگن   
nâhamgen (#)

Fr.: non homogène   

Not homogeneous. → nonhomogeneous linear differential equation.

non-; → homogeneous.

nonhomogeneous linear differential equation
  هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ خطی ناهمگن   
hamugeš-e degarsâne-yi-ye xatti nâhamgen

Fr.: équation différentielle linéaire non homogène   

A → linear differential equation if Q(x)≠ 0 on interval I.

nonhomogeneous; → linear; → differential; → equation.

nonionized
  نایونیده   
nâyonidé (#)

Fr.: non-ionisé   

The quality of an atom that has neither lost nor gained any electrons.

non-; → ionized.

nonlinear
  ناخطی   
nâxatti (#)

Fr.: non-linéaire   

Not a linear function of the relevant variables.
Containing a variable with an exponent other than one; opposite of → linear.

non-; → linear.

nonlinear dynamics
  توانیک ِ ناخطی   
tavânik-e nâxatti

Fr.: dynamique non-linéaire   

Same as → chaos.

nonlinear; → dynamics.

nonlinear instability
  ناپایداری ِ ناخطی   
nâpâydâri-ye nâxatti

Fr.: instabilité non-linéaire   

The instability of a physical or mathematical system that arises from the nonlinear nature of relevant variables and their interactions within the system.

nonlinear; → instability.

nonlinear system
  راژمان ِ ناخطی   
râžmân-e nâxatti

Fr.: système non-linéaire   

A system in which small changes can result in large effects, and large changes in small effects.

nonlinear; → system.

nonlinearity
  ناخطیگی   
nâxattigi

Fr.: non-linéarité   

The property, condition, or state of being → nonlinear.

non-; → linearity.

nonrising star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پنهان   
setâre-ye hamiše penhân (#)

Fr.:   

A star that is never seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance larger than the altitude of the pole.

Nonrising, from → non- + rising adj. of → rise; → star.

Setâré, → star; hamiše penhân, literally "always hidden," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always" (Mid.Pers. hamêšag "always") + penhân "hidden."

nonsense
  جفنگ   
jafang (#)

Fr.: non sense   

Word or language having no meaning. → absurd.

non- + → sense.

Jafang "nonsense, futile."

nonsetting star
  ستاره‌ی ِ همیشه‌پیدا   
setâre-ye hamiše peydâ (#)

Fr.:   

A star that is always seen above the horizon from a given position. These stars are located between the celestial pole and a diurnal circle with an angular distance smaller than the altitude of the pole. Same as → circumpolar star.

Nonsetting, from → non- + setting adj. of → set; → star.

Setâré, → star; hamiše peydâ literally "always visible," coined by Biruni (A.D. 973-1050) in his at-Tafhim, from hamišé "always," → perpetual, + peydâ, → visible.

nonsingular matrix
  ماتریس ِ ناتکین   
mâtris-e nâtakin

Fr.: matrice non singulière   

A → square matrix that is not a → singular matrix.

non-; → singular; → matrix.

nonviscous
  ناوشکسان   
nâvošksân

Fr.: non visqueux   

Fluid mechanics: Having no → viscosity. Same as → inviscid.

From → non- + → viscous.

noon
  نیمروز   
nimruz (#)

Fr.: midi   

The time of day when the Sun crosses the observer's meridian and is at its highest point above the horizon. At this point, the Sun lies due south of an observer in the northern hemisphere and due north of an observer in the southern hemisphere.

M.E. none; O.E. non, from L. nona hora "ninth hour" of daylight by Roman reckoning, about 3 p.m.

Nimruz, from nim "mid-, half" (Mid.Pers. nêm, nêmag "half;" Av. naēma- "half;" cf. Sk. néma- "half") + ruzday.

norm
  هنجار   
hanjâr (#)

Fr.: norme   

General: A standard, model, or pattern regarded as typical.
Math.: 1) The magnitude of a vector expressed as the square root of the sum of the squares of the absolute values of the components of the vector.
2) The value that has the highest frequency within a statistical range.

From Fr. norme, from O.Fr., from L. norma "carpenter's square, rule, pattern," of unknown origin.

Hanjâr "a straight road; way, rule, law; habit, custom; conduct; a mason's rule, a plumb-line, a level;" Mid.Pers. hanjâr "right, correct;" from Proto-Iranian *ham-cara-, *han-cara- prefixed *cara- "to move, walk" (cf. Av. car- "to move, go, walk," carāni "I would go," carāt "he would go;" Mod.Pers. caridan "to graze," gozârdan "to explain," gozâreš "explanation"); cf. Skt. samcara- "passage, way, road, path; going about, moving," from prefix sam- + cara- "moving, going, walking;" Gk. pelomai "to move;" L. colere "to till, cultivate, inhabit."

Norma
  گونیا   
Guniyâ (#)

Fr.: Règle   

The Carpenter's Square. A small and inconspicuous southern constellation which lies between → Scorpius and → Centaurus. Its brightest star is only of magnitude 4.0. Abbreviation: Nor; genitive: Normae

Initially Norma et Regula, L. translation of l'Équerre et la Règle "the Set Square and the Ruler," as named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762).

Guniyâ "carpenter's square," probably related to konj "angle, corner, confined place" (variants xong "corner, angle," Tabari kânj, Kurd. kunj, Hamadâni kom) and zânu "knee" (Av. žnu-), Skt. kona- "angle, corner," Gk. gonia "angle,", gony "knee," L. genu "knee," cuneus "a wedge," Albanian (Gheg dialect) kân "angle, corner," Albanian (Toks) kënd "angle, corner;" PIE base PIE base *g(e)neu-.

normal
  ۱) هنجارور، هنجارمند؛ ۲) هنجار   
1) hanjârvar, hanjârmand; 2) hanjâr;

Fr.: 1) normal; 2) normale   

1) Conforming to the usual standard, type, custom; not abnormal; regular; natural.
2a) Math.: A perpendicular, particularly a line perpendicular to the tangent of a curve or curved surface at the point of contact of the tangent with the curve or the curved surface. See also → perpendicular; → vertical.
2b) Optics: A line drawn perpendicular to the surface of a reflecting or refracting medium.

From L.L. normalis "standing at right angle, in conformity with rule," from L. normalis "made according to a carpenter's square," from norma "rule, pattern," literally "carpenter's square."

Hanjârvar, hanjârmand, adjectives of hanjâr, → norm.

normal dispersion
  پاشش ِ هنجارمند   
pâšeš-e hanjârmand

Fr.: dispersion normale   

The dispersion in which a shorter wavelength is associated with a higher → refractive index. Contrasted with the → anomalous dispersion.

normal; → dispersion.

normal distribution
  واباژش ِ هنجارور   
vâbâžeš-e hanjârvar

Fr.: distribution normale   

A theoretical frequency distribution for a set of variable data, usually represented by a bell-shaped curve with a mean at the center of the curve and tail widths proportional to the standard deviation of the data about the mean. Same as → Gaussian distribution.

normal; → distribution.

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