An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 360
nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)
  باز‌آوایی ِ مغناتیسی ِ هسته‌ای   
bâzâvâyi-ye meqnâtisi-ye haste-yi

Fr.: résonance magnétique nucléaire   

An analysis technique applied to some atomic nuclei that have the property to behave as small magnets and respond to the application of a magnetic field by absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation. When nuclei which have a magnetic moment (such as 1H, 13C, 29Si, or 31P) are submitted to a constant magnetic field and at the same time to a radio-frequency alternating magnetic field, the nuclear magnetic moment is excited to higher energy states if the alternating field has the specific resonance frequency. This technique is especially used in spectroscopic studies of molecular structure and in particular provides valuable information in medicine that can be used to deduce the structure of organic compounds.

nuclear; → magnetic; → resonance.

nuclear magnetism
  مغناتیس ِ هسته‌ای   
meqnâtis-e haste-yi (#)

Fr.: magnétisme nucléaire   

The magnetism associated with the magnetic field generated by atomic nuclei.

nuclear; → magnetism.

nuclear mass
  جرم ِ هسته‌ای   
jerm-e haste-yi (#)

Fr.: masse nucléaire   

The quantity of matter in a nucleus, which is less than the total mass of its nucleons by its binding energy divided by the square of the speed of light.

nuclear; → mass.

nuclear physics
  فیزیک ِ هسته‌ای   
fizik-e haste-yi

Fr.: physique nucléaire   

The branch of physics which is concerned with the study of atomic nuclei, subatomic particles, and their exploitation.

nuclear; → physics.

nuclear power
  توان ِ هسته‌ای   
tavân-e haste-yi

Fr.: puissance nucléaire   

Electric or motive power whose primary source is nuclear energy.

nuclear; → power.

nuclear process
  فراروند ِ هسته‌ای   
farâravand-e haste-yi

Fr.: processus nucléaire   

A process in which an → atomic nucleus changes, including → radioactive decay of naturally occurring and man-made → isotopes, → nuclear fission, and → nuclear fusion.

nuclear; → process.

nuclear reaction
  واژیرش ِ هسته‌ای   
vâžireš-e haste-yi

Fr.: réaction nucléaire   

A process in which the energy, composition, or structure of an atomic nucleus changes.

nuclear; → reaction.

nuclear reactor
  واژیرگر ِ هسته‌ای   
vâžirgar-e haste-yi

Fr.: réacteur nucléaire   

A device in which a nuclear fission chain reaction is maintained and controlled for the production of nuclear energy or radioactive isotopes.

nuclear; → reactor.

nuclear spin
  اسپین ِ هسته‌ای   
espin-e haste-yi

Fr.: spin nucléaire   

The total → angular momentum of a → nucleus, represented by symbol I. The nucleus, which is composed of neutrons and protons, acts as if it is a single entity which has intrinsic angular momentum. The nuclear spin depends on the → mass number; if the mass number is odd then the nucleus has half-integer spin like the electron while if the nucleus has even mass number then its spin will be integer spin.

nuclear; → spin.

nuclear time scale
  مرپل ِ زمانی ِ هسته‌ای   
marpel-e zamâni-ye haste-yi

Fr.: échelle de temps nucléaire   

The time required for a star to exhaust its hydrogen (H) supply in → nuclear fusion. The nuclear time scale is given by the relation t = E/L, where E is the total nuclear energy that can be generated by a star and L is the stellar → luminosity. Assuming that the end point of fusion is → iron (Fe), the → atomic mass difference between H and Fe is Δm = 0.008 mH. Therefore, the maximum amount of energy a star with a hydrogen mass M can release is Δ M = 0.008 Mc2. The nuclear time scale is then: t = 0.008 c2M/L. However, stars use up only a fraction of their hydrogen supply, because only the inner part of the star is hot enough for fusion. For example, the Sun will spend only about 10% of its hydrogen supply before evolving into a → red giant. In other words, the solar life time on the → main sequence is about 1010 years.

nuclear; → time; → scale.

nuclear transition
  گذرش ِ هسته‌ای   
gozareš-e haste-yi

Fr.: transition   

A change in the → energy level or state of an atomic → nucleus involving a → quantum of energy.

nuclear; → transition.

nuclear transmutation
  تراموتش ِ هسته‌ای   
tarâmuteš-e haste-yi

Fr.: transmutation nucléaire   

The changing of atoms of one element into those of another by suitable nuclear reactions.

nuclear; → transmutation.

nuclear waste
  آخال ِ هسته‌ای   
âxâl-e haste-yi (#)

Fr.: déchets nucléaires   

A particular type of radioactive waste that is produced as part of the nuclear fuel cycle. These include extraction of uranium from ore, concentration of uranium, processing into nuclear fuel, and disposal of byproducts.

nuclear; → waste.


Fr.: nucléon   

A constituent of the atomic nucleus, i.e. a proton or a neutron.

From nucle(us), → nucleus, + -on a suffix used in the names of subatomic particles, probably extracted from → ion.

Haston, from hast(é)nucleus + -on, as above.


Fr.: nucléonique   

The practical applications of nuclear physics, and the techniques associated with those applications.

From → nucleon + → -ics.


Fr.: nucléosynthèse   

The process by which → nuclear reactions at very high temperatures and pressures produce the various → chemical elements of the → periodic table, either in the → Big Bang or in stellar interiors. See also → primordial nucleosynthesis, → stellar nucleosynthesis, → explosive nucleosynthesis.

From nucleo-, combining form of → nucleus + → synthesis.

Haste-handâyeš, from hasténucleus + handâyešsynthesis.


Fr.: nucléosynthétiser   

Produce through → nucleosynthesis.

nucleosynthesis; → -ize.


Fr.: nucléosynthétique   

Of, pertaining to, proceeding by, or involving → nucleosynthesis.

Adj. of → nucleosynthesis.

nucleosynthetic era
  دوران ِ هسته‌هندایش   
dowrân-e haste-handâyi

Fr.: ère nucléosynthétique   

The era following the leptonic era, between 1 second and 1000 seconds after the Big Bang, when neutrons were abundant and helium and deuterium were synthesized.

nucleosynthetic; → era.

nucleosynthetic process
  فراروند ِ هسته‌هندایشی   
farâravand-e haste-handâyeši

Fr.: processus nucléosynthétique   

A process involving → nucleosynthesis, such as → r-process and → r-process.

nucleosynthetic; → process.

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