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number 1) adad (#), šomâré (#); 2) šomâr (#) Fr.: 1) nombre, numéro; 2) numéro 1) Any real or complex numeral quantity. From M.E. nombre, from O.Fr. nombre, from L. numerus "a number, quantity," from PIE base *nem- "to divide, distribute, allot." Adad, loan from Ar. |
number density cagâli-ye adadi Fr.: densité nmérique Number of a particular type of object found in each unit volume. |
number e 'adad-e e Fr.: nombre e The → base of the → natural logarithm. It is defined as: e = lim (1 + 1/n)^{n} when n→ ∞. For n = 1, e = 2 and for n = 10, e = 2.5937424601, etc. The number e is → irrational (Euler, 1737) and → transcendental (Hermite, 1873). → number; |
number pi adad-e pi (π) Fr.: nombre pi (π) Symbol, π, for the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter in Euclidean geometry; a fundamental mathematical constant, equal to 3.14159... π is an → irrational number (Lambert, 1761) and also a → transcendental number (von Lindemann, 1882). The most accurate determination of π prior to the Scientific Revolution belongs to the Iranian mathematician Jamshid Kashani, who gave 16 correct decimal places in A.D. 1424. With the advent of → calculus and more recently the invention of powerful computers, the decimal representation of π has now been computed to more than 10^{12} digits. The π notation, representing the first letter of the Gk. word περιμετρον → perimeter, was first used by the British mathematician William Jones (1675-1749) in 1706. Its use was generalized after its adoption by the Swiss mathematician Leonard Euler (1707-1783) in 1737; → number. |
number system râžmân-e adadhâ, ~ adadi Fr.: système de numération Same as → numeral system. |
number system conversion hâgard-e râžmân-e adadi Fr.: conversion de système de numération The conversion of a → number system
with a given → base to another system with a
different base; such as the conversion of a → decimal number
(base 10) to a → binary number system
(base 2).
In order to convert a number into its representation in a different
number base, we have to express the number in terms of powers of the other base.
For example, to convert the decimal number 100 to base 3, we must figure out how to
express 100 as the sum of powers of 3. We proceed as follows: → number; → system; → conversion. |
number theory negare-ye adadhâ Fr.: théories des nombres The branch of mathematics that studies the relationship between integers and their generalization. |
numeral 1) šomârâl; 2) šomâre-yi (#), adadi (#) Fr.: 1) numéral; 2) numéral, numérique 1) A symbol, group of symbols, or word used to express a number.
For any number there is an infinite number of numeral expressions.
For example, the number two can be written as 2, II, binary 10, 4/2, 18/8, etc. From L.L. numeralis "of, or belonging to number," → number + → -al |
numeral system râžmân-e adadi, é adadhâ Fr.: système de numération A set of → symbols and → rules for representing → numbers. Same as → number system. See also: → Greek numeral system, → Roman numeral system, → Indian numeral system. |
numerator šomârân (#) Fr.: numérateur The quantity x in a fraction x/y). The quantity y is the → denominator. L.L. numerator "a counter, numberer," from L. numera(re) "to number," → number + -tor a suffix forming personal agent nouns from verbs and, less commonly, from nouns. Šomârân, agent noun of šomârdan, → number. |
numerical adadi (#) Fr.: numérique Relating to or expressed in numbers. Adj. of → number. |
numerical analysis ânâlas-e adadi Fr.: analyse numérique The study of methods for approximation of solutions of various classes of mathematical problems including error analysis. |
numerical modeling modelsâzi-ye adadi (#), tarzâlsâzi-ye ~ Fr.: modélisation numérique The prediction of the evolution of a system via numerical construction of approximate solutions to the governing equations. |
numerical simulation mânandeš-e adadi, hamânand sâzi-ye ~ Fr.: simulation numérique Another name for → numerical modeling. → numerical; → simulation. |
Nunki (σ Sagittarii) Nunki Fr.: Nunki The second brightest star in the constellation → Sagittarius. It is a blue-white → massive star of → spectral type B2.5 V lying 225 → light-years away. Unusual name of Babylonian origin, of unknown significance. |
nutate langârdan Fr.: osciller To undergo or show → nutation. Nutate, back formation from → nutation. Langârdan, from lang "lame" + ârdan short form of âvardan "to cause or produce; to bring," → production. |
nutation langâreš Fr.: nutation 1) Mechanics: A wobbling motion of a spinning
→ rigid body, such as a top,
as it → precesses about its vertical axis. Fromm L. nutation-, from nutat(us), p.p. of nutare "to wobble, to sway, to nod repeatedly," from nu "nod" + -ta frequentative suffix + -tus p.p. ending + -ion a suffix denoting action or condition. Kaltâv, from Kermâni keletow, Malâyeri kallatow "wobbling," from kal, kalleh "head" + tâv, tow, tâb "swing, twist," from tâbidan "to twist, to spin." |
nutation in right ascension langâreš-e râst-afrâz Fr.: nutation en ascension droite Same as → equation of the equinoxes. → nutation; → right ascension. |
nutator langârande Fr.: nutateur A drive mechanism used to move a radar beam in a circular, spiral, or conical path periodically. Agent noun of → nutate. |
nutrient fârmand Fr.: nutritif 1) Nourishing; providing nourishment or nutriment. From L. nutrientem, pr.p. of nutrire, → nourish. Fârmand, from present stem of fâridan, + -mand. |
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