An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 356
nested function
  کریای ِ تو-در-تو   
karyâ-ye tu-dar-tu

Fr.: fonction imbriquée   

In computer programing, a function that is defined inside the definition of another function.

nested; → function.

nested multiplication
  بستایش ِ تو-در-تو   
bastâyeš-e tu-dar-tu

Fr.: multiplication imbriquée   

A method in the evaluation of polynomials which involves fewer basic operations and allows simpler computation, especially for polynomials of high degree. More specifically, the polynomial P(x) = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + a3x3 + ... + anxn can be written in the nested form as: P(x) = a0 + x(a1 + x(a2 + ... + x(an - 1 + anx) ...)). For example, the polynomial P(x) = x3 - 5x2 + 10x - 3 has the following nested form: P(x) = ((x - 5)x + 10)x - 3. Same as the → Ruffini-Horner method.

nested; → multiplication.


Fr.: réseau   

Any net-like combination of elements in a system; an interconnection of several communicating entities.

O.E. net "mesh," from P.Gmc. *natjan (cf. Du. net, Swed. nät, O.H.G. nezzi, Ger. Netz, Goth. nati "net"), originally "something knotted," from PIE *ned- "to twist, knot" (cf. L. nodus "knot;" Skt. nahyati "binds, ties") + → work.

Turbast literally "joined, tied by a net," from tur "net, fishing net, snare," related to târ "thread, warp, string," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), tân "thread, warp of a web," from tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" cf. Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch") + bast "joined, tied," from bastan, vastan "to bind, shut" (O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

Neumann line
  خط ِ نویمان   
xatt-e Neumann

Fr.: raie de Neumann   

In → iron meteorites, any of very fine parallel lines that cross each other at various angles. They can be seen after cutting diagonally across the sample.

Named after Johann G. Neumann, who discovered them in 1848 in the iron meteorite Braunau, which fell in 1847; → line.

natâr (#)

Fr.: neutre   

Grammar: Noting or pertaining to a gender that refers to things classed as neither masculine nor feminine.
Biology: Having no organs of reproduction; without sex; asexual. → neutral.

From M.E., from M.Fr., from L. neuter, literally "neither one nor the other," from ne- "not, no" + uter "either of two;" cf. Av. atāra- "this of the two, which of the two;" Gk. poteros; Lith. katras "which of the two," Russ. kotoryj "which."

Natâr, from negation prefix na-, → non-, + Mid.Pers. atâr, from Av. atāra- "this of the two," cognate with L. uter "either of two;" Av. katāra- "which of two; each of two;" Skt. katará- "who or which of two."

natâr (#)

Fr.: neutre   

Physics: Of an atom, molecule, collection of particles, having no net charge; not electrified.
Chemistry: Exhibiting neither acid nor alkaline qualities.

From → neuter + → -al.


neutral atom
  اتم ِ نتار   
atom-e natâr

Fr.: atome neutre   

An atom in which the number of → protons equals the number of → electrons and therefore has no net → electric charge.

neutral; → atom.

neutral density filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ چگالی ِ نتار   
pâlâye-ye cagâli-ye natâr

Fr.: filtre neutre   

A filter having a flat response over the range of wavelengths of interest. Also called neutral filter or gray filter.

neutral; → density; → filter.

neutral filter
  پالایه‌ی ِ نتار   
pâlâye-ye natâr

Fr.: filtre neutre   

Same as → neutral density filter.

neutral; → filter.

neutral gas
  گاز ِ نتار   
gâz-e natâr

Fr.: gaz neutre   

A gas which is not ionized.

neutral; → gas.

neutral hydrogen
  هیدروژن ِ نتار   
hidrožen-e natâr

Fr.: hydrogène neutre   

Non-ionized → atomic hydrogen gas which constitutes an important component of the → interstellar medium, accounting for perhaps half its mass, even though its density is very low. Its radio emission → 21-centimeter line has made it possible to map the distribution of neutral hydrogen in the → spiral arms of our own Galaxy and other nearby galaxies.

neutral; → hydrogen.

neutral mode
  مد ِ نتار، ترز ِ ~   
mod-e natâr, tarz-e ~

Fr.: mode neutre   

In hydrodynamic instability theory, a wave solution the amplitude of which does not change with time; it neither grows nor decays. Also called neutral wave.

neutral; → mode.

neutral point
  نقطه‌ی ِ نتار   
noqte-ye natâr

Fr.: point neutre   

1) A point where two fields are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction so that the net force exerted on it is zero.
2) One of several points in the sky for which the → degree of polarization of diffuse sky light is zero.

neutral; → point.

neutral tail
  دم ِ نتار، دنباله‌ی ِ ~   
dom-e natâr, donbâle-ye ~

Fr.: queue neutre   

Same as → sodium tail.

neutral; → tail.

neutral wave
  موج ِ نتار   
mowj-e natâr

Fr.: onde neutre   

Same as → neutral mode.

neutral; → wave.

notrâlino (#)

Fr.: neutralino   

A hypothetical particle predicted by supersymmetry theories, which aim at relating bosons to fermions. Under certain assumptions, the lightest such partner particle would be stable, and if it is neutral (a "neutralino"), would make a good dark matter candidate. Reasonable neutralino masses range from 30 GeV to 10 TeV.

From → neutral + -ino diminutive suffix.


Fr.: neutralisation   

In optics, the process of combining two lenses having equal and opposite powers to produce a result having no power.

Verbal noun of → neutralize.


Fr.: neutraliser   

To make neutral; cause to undergo neutralization.
To render electrically or magnetically neutral.

Infinitive from → neutral.

notrino (#)

Fr.: neutrino   

An → elementary particle with zero → charge, → spin 1/2, and very small → rest mass. The three types of neutrino (electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) experience only the → weak nuclear force and gravitational force, and pass easily through matter. The neutrino undergoes a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which → neutrino flavor changes spontaneously to another flavor (→ neutrino oscillation). The neutrino was first postulated by Wolfgang Pauli in 1931 to account for the problem of energy → conservation in → beta decay. It was discovered in 1956.
See also: → antineutrino, → atmospheric neutrino, → cosmic neutrino background (CNB), → cosmogenic neutrino, → high-energy neutrino, → low-energy neutrino, → solar neutrino, → solar neutrino problem, → solar neutrino unit (SNU), → sterile neutrino, → ultra-high-energy neutrino.

Neutrino, coined by Enrico Fermi (1901-1954), from neutr(o)neuter + -ino diminutive suffix.

neutrino flavor
  چاشنی ِ نوترینو   
câšni-ye notrino

Fr.: saveur de neutrino   

Any of the six different varieties of the neutrinos: electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tau neutrinos, and their antiparticles.

neutrino; → flavor.

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