An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 365
night assistant
  دستیار ِ شب   
dastyâr-e šab

Fr.: assistant de nuit   

A specialized technician in an observatory who is in charge of functioning a telescope and helping visiting astronomers during their observation run.

From → night + assistant; M.E. assistent, from L. assistent-, stem of assistens, pr.p. of assistere "assist, stand by," from → ad- "to" + sistere "take a stand, cause to stand," cognate with Pers. istâdan "to stand," → histogram.

Dastyâr "assistant," from dast "hand" (Mid.Pers. dast; O.Pers. dasta-; Av. zasta-; cf. Skt. hásta-; Gk. kheir; L. praesto "at hand;" Arm. jern "hand;" Lith. pa-žastis "arm-pit;" PIE *ghes-to-) + yâr "helper; companion" (Mid.Pers. hayyâr "helper," hayyârêh "help, aid, assistance," Proto-Iranian *adyāva-bara-, cf. Av. aidū- "helpful, useful").

night blindness
  شبکوری   
šabkuri (#)

Fr.: nyctalopie   

An eye disease which is the difficulty in seeing at night or in dim light. Opposite of → hemeralopia. Also called → nyctalopia.

night; → blindness.

nightglow
  شب‌فروز، شب‌فروغ   
šabforuz, šabforuq

Fr.: luminescence nocturne   

Same as → airglow.

night; → glow.

Nihal (β Leporis)
  نهال   
nehâl (#)

Fr.: Nihal   

A yellow star of visual magnitude 2.84, the second brightest in the constellation → Lepus. It is a giant of → spectral type G5, lying some 159 light-years away. Nihal is double, with a companion, 2.5 seconds of arc apart.

From Ar. an-nihal (النهال) "the thirsty camels, drinking camels," plural form of an-nâhil (الناهل).

nine
  نه   
noh (#)

Fr.: neuf   

A → cardinal number between → eight and → ten.

M.E., from O.E. nigen, nigan, nigon, akin to M.Du. neghen, Du. negen, O.H.G. niun, Ger. neun, Goth. niun "nine," Pers. noh, as below; from PIE *newn "nine."

Noh, from Mid.Pers. ; Av. nava; cognate with Skt. nava-; Gk. ennea; L. novem.

nitrogen
  ازت   
azot (#)

Fr.: azote   

Gaseous chemical element; symbol N. Nitrogen is the most abundant constituent of dry air. It comprises 78.09% (by volume). → Atomic number 7; → atomic weight 14.0067; → melting point -209.86°C; → boiling point -195.8°C. Nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas. It was discovered by the Scottish physician and chemist Daniel Rutherford in 1772.

From Fr. nitrogène, coined 1790 by Fr. chemist Jean Antoine Chaptal (1756-1832), from combining form of Gk. nitron "sodium carbonate" + Fr. gène "producing."

Azot, loan from Fr. azote, from Gk. azotos "lifeless," from negation prefix → a- + zotos "vital."

nivology
  برفشناسی   
barfšenâsi

Fr.: nivologie   

Science of → snow.

From Fr. nivologie, from niveus "snow; snowy," → snow, + -logie, → -logy.

Barfšenâsi, frp barf, → snow, + -šenâsi, → -logy.

Nix
  نیکس   
Niks

Fr.: Nix   

The second satellite of → Pluto discovered in 2005 by astronomers using the → Hubble Space Telescope images. It has an estimated diameter of between 46 and 137 km and an orbital period of 24.9 days. Also called Pluto II (P2).

Nix, from Nyx in Gk. mythology the goddess of darkness and night. The conversion of "i" into "y" was to avoid conflict with the asteroid 3908 Nyx.

no boundary hypothesis
  انگاره‌ی ِ گیتی بی کران ِ آغازین   
engâre-ye giti bi karân-e âqâzin

Fr.: l'hypothèse de l'Univers sans limite initiale   

The proposal whereby the → Universe would not have begun with a → singularity. Instead, the → Big Bang would be an ordinary point of → space-time. The proposal, advanced by James Hartle and Stephen Hawking (1983) results from an attempt to combine aspects of → general relativity and → quantum mechanics. Based on an imaginary time assumption, it predicts a closed Universe that would start at a single point, that can be compared to the North Pole of the Earth on a two-dimensional space. Before the → Planck era there was space, but the real time began with the Big Bang event. → Hartle-Hawking initial state.

boundary; → hypothesis.

no hair theorem
  فربین ِ بی‌مویی، ~ کچلی   
farbin-e bimu-yi, ~ kacali

Fr.: théorème de calvitie   

There are only three parameters that can be applied by an outside observer relating to a → black hole: → mass, → electric charge, and → angular momentum. The collapse of a star into a black hole wipes out all other details of its structure, and the observer can never discover any other properties of the star which formed the black hole. In other words, none of its characteristics leave any trace outside the black hole, and that is what is meant by "hair."

No, M.E., from O.E. na "never, no," cognate with Pers. na, nâ, → non-; → hair; → theorem.

Farbin, → theorem; bimuyi, noun from bimu "without hair," from bi- "without" (→ in-) + mu, → hair.
Kacali "baldness," from kacal "bald," also "crooked, bandy-legged," from kajal, from kaj "crooked, curved, bent" + → -al; probably unrelated to kal "bald," → colure.

Noachian era
  دوران ِ نوحیانه   
dowrân-e Nuhiyâné

Fr.: ère noachienne   

>Noachian era = dowrân-e Nuhiyâné     دوران ِ نوحیانه

Fr.: ère noachienne

The oldest geological era on Mars, which started from the planet's birth and lasted until about 3.8 billion years ago. Features such as dried-up river valleys and delta features suggest that the climate may have been warmer and wetter. It is believed also that lakes and oceans could have existed. → Amazonian era; → Hesperian era.

The oldest geological era on Mars, which started from the planet's birth and lasted until about 3.8 billion years ago. Features such as dried-up river valleys and delta features suggest that the climate may have been warmer and wetter. It is believed also that lakes and oceans could have existed. → Amazonian era; → Hesperian era.

Noachian, named for → Noachis Terra "Land of Noah;" → era.

Noachis Terra
  زمین ِ نوحیانه   
zamin-e Nuhiyâné

Fr.: Noachis Terra   

An extensive southern terrain of the planet Mars. One of the oldest terrains on Mars, it lies roughly between the latitudes -20° and -80° and longitudes 30° west and 30° east.

L. Noachis Terra "Land of Noah."

Zamin "land," → earth; Nuhiyâné adj. of Nuhi "related to Nuh," from Nuh (نوح) "Noah."

noble gas
  گاز ِ هوپد   
gâz-e huped

Fr.: gaz rare   

A gaseous chemical element that does not readily enter into chemical combination with other elements. Examples are helium, argon, krypton, xenon, and radon. Same as → inert gas.

Noble, from O.Fr. noble, from L. nobilis "well-known, famous, of superior birth," earlier gnobilis, literally "knowable," from gnoscere "to come to know" (Fr. connaître; Sp. conocer); cognate with Pers. šenâxtan "to know, discern, distinguish, be acquainted with;" Mid.Pers. šnâxtan, šnâs- "to know, recognize," dânistan "to know;" O.Pers./Av. xšnā- "to know, learn, come to know, recognize;" cf. Skt. jñā- "to recognize, know," jānāti "he knows;" Gk. gignoskein "to know, think, judge;" P.Gmc. *knoeanan; O.E. cnawan; E. know; Rus. znat "to know;" PIE base *gno- "to know;" → gas.

Gâz, → gas; huped "noble," from Mid.Pers. hupid "noble," from hu- "good, well" (Mid.Pers. hu-; O.Pers. hu- "good, well" (ukāra- "having good people"); Av. hu-, hū- "well, good, beautiful" (hu-kərp- "well-shapen," hūxta- "well spoken," hu-manah- "good-minded"); cf. Skt. su- "good" (svasti "well-being, good luck," sumánas- "good-minded," sūktá- "well spoken"); L. from Gk. eu "well," combining form of eus "good" (hu-gies "healthy"); Gallic su-; O.S. su-; Welsh hy-; PIE base *su-) + pid "father," variant of pidar; Mod.Pers. pedar "father" (O.Pers. pitā- "father;" Av. patar-; Skt. pitár-; Gk. pater; L. pater, O.H.G. fater).

nock
  سوفار   
sufâr (#)

Fr.: entaille, encoche   

The end part of an → arrow having a notch for holding the bowstring.

M.E. nok(ke); of uncertain origin; cf. Swedish nock "notch;" also M.L.G. nokk, Dutch nok "tip of a sail."

Sufâr "the notch in the arrow which receives the string," also "the eye of needle," related to softan, sombidan "to pierce;" Mid.Pers. sôftan "to pierce, bore;" cf. Pashtu suray, Wakhi sərv "hole, cavity," Munji surv "hole," Yidgha surv, Kurd. sontin; Proto-Ir. sup, sub, sump, sumb "to pierce."

noctilucent cloud
  ابر ِ شب‌تاب   
abr-e šabtâb

Fr.: nuage nocturne lumineux   

The highest clouds in the Earth's atmosphere, at altitudes between 75 and 90 km. They resemble thin cirrus clouds with a bluish or silverish color, and are visible only during twilight.

From nocti- combining form of L. nox, → night, + L. lucent p.p. of lucere "to shine," from luxlight; → cloud.

Abr, → cloud, + šabtâb "noctilucent," from šab, → night, + tâb present stem of tâbidan "to shine," → luminous.

nodal
  گرهی   
gerehi (#)

Fr.: nodal   

Relating to or of the nature of a node.

node; → -al.

nodal line
  خط ِ گره‌ها   
xatt-e gerehhâ

Fr.: ligne des noeuds   

The line connecting the ascending and descending nodes of an orbit.

nodal; → line.

nodal point
  نقطه‌ی ِ گرهی   
noqte-ye gerehi

Fr.: point nodal   

Any of the two points on the → axis of a → lens system, such that if the → incident ray passes through one, travelling in a given direction, the → emergent ray passes the other in a parallel direction.

nodal; → point.

nodal regression
  پسرفت ِ گرهی   
pasraft-e gerehi

Fr.: regression nodale   

For a ring inclined to the planet's equator, the points at which the ring crosses the equator (nodes) slowly move around the planet (regress) in a direction opposite to that of the ring's orbital motion. (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

nodal; → regression.

node
  گره   
gereh (#)

Fr.: nœud   

1) A point of zero → amplitude in a system of → stationary waves. See also → antinode.
2) A → junction point in a network.
3) Same as → orbital node; see also → lunar node.
4) In → graph theory, same as → vertex.

From L. nodus "knot."

Gereh "knot," from Mid.Pers. grih "knot;" Sogdian γr'nš "knot, bond, joining;" Khotanese grantha- "knot;" cf. Skt. granthi- "knot."

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