An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



<< < -oi obj obs obs oce Of? ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb org Ori osc out ove oxi > >>

Number of Results: 391
optical axis
  آسه‌یِ نوری   
âse-ye nuri (#)

Fr.: axe optique   

Line passing through the optical center and the center of curvature a spherical mirror or lens.

optical; → axis.

optical bench
  میز ِ نوریک، ~ نورشناختی   
miz-e nurik, ~ nuršenâxti

Fr.: banc optique   

A track or table on which sources, lenses, mirrors, and other optical components can be mounted and moved. It is used in optics experiments.

optical; bench, M.E., from O.E. benc "long seat;" cf. Da. bænk, M.Du. banc, O.H.G. banch.

Miz "table," originally "preparations for entertaining a guest; guest;" Mid.Pers. mêzd "offering, meal;" nurik, nuršenâxti, → optical.

optical center
  مرکزِ نوری   
markaz-e nuri (#)

Fr.: centre optique   

Of a thin lens, a point situated at the geometrical center of the lens, through which an incident ray passes without being deviated.

optical; → center.

optical component
  همنه‌ی ِ نوریک   
hamne-ye nurik

Fr.: composante optique   

Any device such as a → lens, → prism, → mirror, and/or other similar objects used in an → optical system.

optical; → component.

optical counterpart
  همتایِ نوری   
hamtâ-ye nuri

Fr.: contrepartie optique   

An astronomical object with usually weak emission in the → visible found to be the optical representation of the object radiating chiefly in other → wavelengths of the → electromagnetic spectrum.

optical; → counterpart.

optical density
  چگالیِ نوری   
cagâli-ye nuri

Fr.: densité optique   

The transmittance of a point on a photographic negative equal to the log to the base 10 of the reciprocal of the transmittance through the negative at that point.

optical; → density.

optical depth
  ژرفایِ نوری   
žarfâ-ye nuri

Fr.: profondeur optique   

1) A measure of how much radiation is absorbed when traveling through a medium (such as the atmosphere of a star or the interstellar medium) from the source to a given point. It depends on the type of medium and the frequency of radiation. It is defined as a dimensionless quantity λ = κλ ρ dx, where κλ is the extinction coefficient, ρ the density, and dx the path length.
2) The ratio of the intensity of radiation (light or radio waves) incident on a ring to that emerging from the opposite face of the ring, expressed as a natural logarithm. If the reduction in intensity is by a factors of e (= 2.718), the ring is said to have an optical depth of 1. Normal (or normalized) optical depth is optical depth corrected for oblique (non-vertical) viewing. In ring studies, the terms optical depth and optical thickness are generally used interchangeably. These terms generally refer to a particular wavelength (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

optical; → depth.

optical double star
  ستاره‌یِ دوتایی ِ دیدگانی   
setâre-ye dotâyi-ye didgâni

Fr.: étoile double optique   

A pair of stars that lie close to each other in the sky by chance, but are not physically associated, in contrast to a true → binary star.

optical; → double star.

optical fiber
  فیبرِ نوری   
fibr-e nuri

Fr.: fibre optique   

A thin filament of drawn or extruded glass or plastic having a central core and a cladding of lower index material to promote internal reflection. It may be used singly to transmit pulsed optical signals (communications fiber) or in bundles to transmit light or images.

optical; → fiber.

optical illusion
  سفمانِ دیدگانی   
safmân-e didgâni

Fr.: illusion d'optique   

A perception of visual stimuli in which what is perceived is in a way different from the way it is in reality. Same as visual illusion.

optical; → illusion.

optical instrument
  سازالِ نوری   
sâzâl-e nuri

Fr.: instrument optique   

An instrument that either processes light waves to enhance an image or analyzes light waves to determine one of a number of characteristic properties.

optical; → instrument.

optical jet
  شان ِ نوری   
šân-e nuri

Fr.: jet optique   

An → astrophysical jet which is visible in the optical range of the electromagnetic radiation.

optical; → jet.

optical oblateness
  پخی ِ نوری   
paxi-ye nuri

Fr.: aplatissement optique   

(polar flattening) The ratio of the difference between equatorial and polar diameters to the equatorial diameter. A sphere has an oblateness of 0; an infinitely thin disk has an oblateness of 1 (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

optical; → oblateness.

optical path
  راهِ نوری   
râh-e nuri (#)

Fr.: chemin optique   

In → geometric optics, the distance a light ray would travel in a vacuum in the same time it travels from one point to another, a specified distance, through one or more optical media.

optical; → path.

optical pulsar
  پولسارِ نوری، تپار ِ ~   
pulsâr-e nuri, tapâr-e ~

Fr.: pulsar optique   

A member of a rare class of pulsars, such as the → Crab pulsar and → Vela pulsar, which can be detected in the visible spectrum.

optical; → pulsar.

optical pumping
  پمپشِ نوری   
pompeš-e nuri

Fr.: pompage optique   

A process in which light energy is used to raise electrons from a lower energy level in an atom or molecule to a higher one. It is commonly used in laser construction, to pump the active laser medium so as to achieve population inversion. The technique was developed by 1966 Nobel Prize winner Alfred Kastler in the early 1950's.

optical; → pumping.

optical system
  راژمان ِ نوری، ~ نوریک   
râžmân-e nuri, ~ nurik

Fr.: système optique   

A collection of lens, prisms, mirrors, and/or other devices, placed in some specified configuration, to act on light (reflect, refract, disperse, polarize, etc.) and perform some definite optical function.

optical; → system.

optical thickness
  ستبرایِ نوری   
setabrâ-ye nuri

Fr.: épaisseur optique   

Same as → optical depth.

optical; → thickness.

optical transfer function (OTF)
  کریا‌یِ تراوژ ِ نوری   
karyâ-ye tarâvaž-e nuri

Fr.: fonction de transfert optique   

The function that provides a full description of the imaging quality of an optical system. A combination of the → modulation transfer function (MTF) and the → phase transfer function (PTF) , the OTF describes the spatial (angular) variation as a function of spatial (angular) frequency.

optical; → transfer; → function.

optical window
  روزنه‌یِ نوری   
rowzane-ye nuri

Fr.: fenêtre optique   

The optical portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that passes through the atmosphere all the way to the ground.

optical; → window.

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