An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 391
organic chemistry
  شیمیِ ارگانیک، ~ ِ آلی   
šimi-ye orgânik, ~ âli

Fr.: chimie organique   

The study of compounds that contain carbon chemically bound to hydrogen.

organic; → chemistry.

organic molecule
  مولکول ِ ارگانیک   
molekul-e orgânik

Fr.: molécule organique   

A molecule that is normally found in or produced by living systems. Organic molecules typically consist of carbon atoms in rings or long chains, where other atoms (e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen) are attached, except for → carbon monoxide (CO) and → carbon dioxide (CO2), etc.

organic; → molecule.

organism
  سازواره   
sâzvâré (#)

Fr.: organisme   

1) Biology: A living individual composed of mutually interdependent parts that maintain various vital processes.
2) Any organized body or system conceived of as analogous to a living being. → microorganism

From → organ + -ism a suffix appearing in loanwords from Gk. denoting several senses, among which state or condition, principles, doctrines.

Sâzvâré, from sâz present stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -vâré, from -vâr a suffix meaning "resembling, like" (from Mid.Pers. -wâr; Av. -vara, -var; cf. Skt. -vara).

organization
  سازمان   
sâzmân (#)

Fr.: organisation   

1) The act or process of organizing.
2) The state or manner of being organized.
3) A group of persons organized for some end or work.

M.E. organizacion, from M.L. organization-, from organizatus p.p. of organizare "organize" + -ate.

Sâzmân, from sâz present stem of sâxtan, sâzidan "to build, make, fashion; to adapt, adjust, be fit" (from Mid.Pers. sâxtan, sâz-, Manichean Parthian s'c'dn "to prepare, to form;" Av. sak- "to understand, to mark," sâcaya- (causative) "to teach") + -mân verbal noun suffix used with present and past stems, as in zâymân, câymân; sâxtemân, goftemân.

Note 1: The suffix -mân occurs extensively in some dialects, in particular in Garkuye-yi where it replaces the infinitive suffix -idan: resâmon (= rasidan "to arrive"), kešâmon (= kešidan "to draw"), kartemon (= kardan "to do"), bartemon (= bordan "to carry, bear"), paxdemon (= poxtan "to cook"), esbârtemon (= sepordan "entrust, make over to"), bâfdemon (= bâftan "to weave"), ašnofdemon (= šenidan "to hear"), terakâmon (= tarakidan "to blast"), teknâmon (= tekândan "to shake").

Note 2: -mân may be related to Av. suffix -man, which forms a number of derivative action-nous: rasman- "column, rank," from raz- "to direct;" vaēsman- "dwelling," from vaes- "to be or keep ready as, to serve as;" nāman- "name;" asman- "stone, heaven."

organize
  سازمان‌دادن، سازمانیدن   
sâzmân dâdan, sâzmânidan

Fr.: organiser   

To form as or into a whole consisting of interdependent or coordinated parts.

From M.L. organizare "to contrive, arrange," from L. organ(um) "instrument, organ," → organ + -izare-ize.

Sâzmân dâdan, from sâzmân, → organization, + dâdan "to give" (O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. tithenai "to place, put, set," didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere "to do, to make;" Rus. delat' "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do;" PIE base *dhe- "to put, to do"); sâzmânidan, from sâzmân + -idan infinitive suffix.

organohalogen
  ارگانوهالوژن   
orgânohâložen

Fr.: organohalogène   

A class of molecules that contain at least one → halogen atom bonded to → carbon. Organohalogens are abundant on the Earth where they are mainly produced through industrial and biological processes. They have been proposed as → biomarkers in the search for life on → exoplanets. Simple halogen hydrides have been detected in → interstellar medium sources and in → comets. → Methyl chloride (CH3Cl), the most abundant organohalogen in the Earth's atmosphere, has both → natural and → synthetic production pathways (Fayolle et al., 2017, Nature Astronomy 1, 703).

From organo-, → organ, + → halogen.

orient
  ۱) خاور؛ ۲) سو دادن؛ سو یافتن   
1) xâvar; 2) su dâdan; su yâftan

Fr.: 1) orient; 2) orienter; s'orienter   

1) East. The countries of Asia, especially East Asia.
2a) To place in a definite relation to the points of the compass or other fixed or known directions.
2b) To turn toward the east or in any specified direction.

M.E., from O.Fr. orient "east," from L. orient-, oriens rising sun, east," from pr.p. of oriri "to rise," cognate with Pers. ras-, rasidan "to arrive;" O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- to move, go or come forward;" cf. Skt. ar- "to reach, come toward, meet with," rccháti "reaches;" Gk. erkhomai "to go, to reach."

1) Xâvar, → east.
2) su dâdan literally "to give direction, orientation;" su yâftan "to acquire direction," from su "direction, side," from Mid.Pers. sôk "direction, side," + dâdan "to give," → datum; yâftan "t find, obtain," → find.

orientation
  ۱) سو؛ ۲) سودهی؛ سویابی   
1) su (#); 2) sudahi (#); suyâbi (#)

Fr.: orientation   

1) The position in relation to a specific place or object.
2) The act or process of orienting; the state of being oriented.

Verbal noun of → orient.

origin
  خاستگاه   
xâstgâh (#)

Fr.: origine   

1) General: The beginning or starting point.
2) Math.: The point of intersection of two or more axes.

M.E., from L. origin-, origo "beginning, source, lineage," from oriri "to rise," cognate with Pers. ras-, rasidan "to arrive;" O.Pers./Av. rasa- present stem of ar- to move, go or come forward;" cf. Skt. ar- "to reach, come toward, meet with," rccháti reaches;" Gk. erkhomai "to go, to reach."

Xâstgâh, from xâst past stem of xâstan, xizidan "to rise, get up" (Mid.Pers. xyz- "to stand up, rise;" Proto-Iranian *xiz- "to rise, ascend; increase") + -gâh suffix of time and place (Mid.Pers. gâh, gâs "time;" O.Pers. gāθu-; Av. gātav-, gātu- "place, throne, spot;" cf. Skt. gâtu- "going, motion; free space for moving; place of abode;" PIE *gwem- "to go, come").

Orion
  شکارگر، ا ُریون   
Šekârgar (#), Orion (#)

Fr.: Orion   

The Hunter. A prominent constellation, one of the largest in the sky, located on the celestial equator around 5h 30m right ascension, 0° declination. This constellation is rich in bright stars and nebulae. The brightest star is Rigel (β Orionis), visual magnitude 0.2. The second brightest star is → Betelgeuse (α Orionis), magnitude between 0.2 and 1.0. A key feature of Orion's constellation is his Belt of three bright stars that form a nearly straight line across its central parts. It contains also the → Orion Nebula, the only region of massive star formation visible to the unaided eye.

In Gk. mythology, Orion was a giant hunter and the enemy of Artemis the huntress, who according to some tales was responsible for his death. Other stories, though, tell how he pursued the Pleiades and with them was turned into a constellation to chase them forever across the sky.

Šekârgar, "→ hunter."

Orion Arm
  بازویِ شکارگر، ~ ِ ا ُریون   
bâzu-ye Šekârgar, ~ Orion

Fr.: bras d'Orion   

A minor → spiral arm of the → Milky Way Galaxy close to which the → Sun is located. It is some 3,500 → light-years across and approximately 10,000 light-years in length. The solar system lies close to the inner rim of this spiral arm, about halfway along its length. Its name derives from the fact that the stars closest to the Sun which actually lie within the arm are in the constellation → Orion. Its other designations are → Local Arm, → Local Spur, → Orion Bridge, → Orion Spur, and → Orion-Cygnus Arm.

Orion; → arm.

Orion association
  آهزشِ شکارگر، ~ اُریون   
âhazeš-e Šekârgar, ~ Orion

Fr.: association d'Orion   

A large OB stellar association centered on the → Orion Nebula. Lying some 1500 → light-years away, it is about 400 light-years across and contains the main stars of Orion, except → Betelgeuse.

Orion; → association.

Orion Bar
  میله‌ی ِ شکارگر، ~ اوریون   
mile-ye Šekârgar, ~ Orion

Fr.: barre d'Orion   

A part of a → molecular cloud toward the → Orion Nebula viewed edge-on. It is the surface of interaction between the → H II region and its → associated molecular cloud. Same as the → Orion Bright Bar.

Orion; → bar.

Orion Bridge
  پل ِ شکارگر   
pol-e šekârgar

Fr.: pont d'Orion   

Same as → Orion Arm.

Orion; → bridge.

Orion Bright Bar
  میله‌ی ِ درخشان ِ شکارگر، ~ ~ اُریون   
mile-ye deraxšân-e Šekârgar, ~ ~ Orion

Fr.: barre brillante d'Orion   

A prominent emission ridge in the → Orion Nebula located approximately 2' southeast of the → Trapezium cluster. Various observations have suggested that it is an escarpment in the main → ionization front of the Nebula seen almost edge-on. The Orion Bar is one of the nearest and best-studied → photodissociation regions.

Orion; → bright; → bar.

Orion correlation theory
  نگره‌ی ِ هم‌باز‌آنش ِ اوریون   
negare-ye hambâzâneš-e Oryon

Fr.: théorie de la corrélation d'Orion   

A controversial proposition according to which a coincidence would exist between the mutual positions of the three stars of → Orion's Belt and those of the main Giza pyramids. More specifically, Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure would be the monumental representation of → Alnitak, → Alnilam, and → Mintaka, respectively.

Orion; → correlation; → theory.

Orion molecular cloud
  ابرِ مولکولی ِ شکارگر، ~ ~ ا ُریون   
abr-e molekuli-ye Šekârgar, ~ ~ Orion

Fr.: nuage moléculaire d'Orion   

A giant cloud, or complex of clouds, of interstellar gas and dust associated with the Orion nebula (M42). It is about 1,500 light-years away and measures about 240 light-years across. Besides M42 and M43 it contains a number of famous objects, including Barnard's Loop, the Horsehead Nebula, and the reflection nebulae around M78. Within this cloud, stars have formed recently, and are still in the process of formation.

Orion; → molecular cloud.

Orion Nebula
  میغِ شکارگر، ~ ِ ا ُریون   
miq-e Šekârgar, ~ Orion

Fr.: Nébuleuse d'Orion   

The best known ionized nebula and one of the nearest regions to the Sun in which stars are presently being formed. It is visible to the naked eye in the constellation → Orion south of Orion's Belt as a fuzzy patch. It lies about 1,500 light-years away and measures about 30 light-years across. The Orion Nebula is ionized and made visible by a small group of O and B type stars known as the Trapezium cluster. Other designations: M 42, NGC 1976. → Huygens Region ; → Orion Bright Bar.

Orion; → nebula.

Orion Spur
  شخاک ِ شکارگر   
šaxâk-e šekârgar

Fr.: éperon d'Orion   

Same as → Orion Arm.

Orion; → → spur.

Orion's Belt
  کمربندِ شکارگر، ~ اُریون   
kamarband-e Šekârgar, ~ Orion

Fr.: Ceinture d'Orion   

Three prominent stars in the central regions of the constellation → Orion that align to form the "belt" of the mythological Hunter. They are → Alnitak, → Alnilam, and → Mintaka. The easternmost star Alnitak is separated from the middle one, Alnilam, by 1°.36, and the westernmost Mintaka has an angular distance of 1°.23 from Alnilam. Their distance is between 800 and 1,300 light-years from Earth. They probably formed inside the same molecular cloud less than 10 million years ago.

Orion; → belt.

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