An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 373
over-expose
  بیش‌نوردادن   
bišnurdâdan

Fr.: surexposer   

To expose a detector to too much photons, resulting in saturation.

over-; → expose.

over-exposure
  بیش‌نورداد   
bišnurdâd

Fr.: surexposition   

Excessive exposure of a detector, → over-expose.

over-; → exposure.

overabundance
  بیش‌فراوانی   
biš-farâvâni

Fr.: surabondance   

The abundance of a chemical element exceeding a reference value, in particular compared to that of the Sun.

over-; → abundance.

overdamping
  بیش‌میرایی   
bišmirâyi

Fr.: sur-amortissement   

The condition of a system in which the damping is so large that the system comes to a position of rest without oscillating.

over-; → damping.

overdense matter
  ماده‌یِ بیش‌چگال   
mâdde-ye biš-cagâl

Fr.: matière surdense   

Matter whose density exceeds a reference level.

over-; → dense; → matter.

overestimate
  ۱) بیش‌بر‌آوردن؛ ۲) بیش‌بر‌آورد   
biš-barâvardan; 2) biš-barâvard

Fr.: 1) surestimer; 2) surestimation   

1) To estimate at too high a value, amount, rate, or the like.
2) An estimate that is too high.

over-; → estimate.

overflow
  سرریز   
sarriz (#)

Fr.: débordement   

In computers, the condition arising when the result of an arithmetic operation exceeds the capacity of the number representation.

over-; → flow.

Sarriz, from sar, → head, + riz present stem of rixtan "to flow, to pour" (Mid.Pers. rēxtan and rēcitan "to flow;" Av. raēk- "to leave, set free; to yield, transfer," infinitive *ricyā; Mod.Pers; rig in morderig "heritage" (literally, "left by the dead"); cf. Skt. rinakti "he leaves," riti- "stream; motion, course;" L. rivus "stream, brook;" Old Church Slavic rēka "river;" Rus. reka "river;" Goth. rinnan "run, flow," rinno "brook;" O.E. ridh "stream").

overhead time
  زمانِ بالاسر   
zamân-e bâlâsar

Fr.:   

The part of observing time at a telescope which is not directly used for science, such as the time spent for detector read-out, changing instruments, focusing, etc.

over-; → head; → time.

Bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height" (variants boland "high, tall, elevated, sublime," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. and E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high") + sar, → head.

overlap
  ۱) برهم‌نهادن؛ ۲) برهم نشستن؛ ۳) برهم‌نهاد؛ برهم‌نشست   
1) barham nehâdan; 2) barham nešastan; 3) barham nehâd; barham nešast

Fr.: empiéter, chevaucher   

1) (v.tr.) To lap over something else; extend over and cover a part of.
2) (v.intr.) To lap over.
3a) Math.: Of sets, to have one or more elements in common.
3b) Chemistry: The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.
3c) Meteo.: The area common to two successive satellite images or scan swaths along the same or adjacent flight or orbital strips. The amount of overlap is expressed as a percentage of image area or scanned area.

over- + lap, verb from noun lap, from O.E. læppa "skirt or flap of a garment," from P.Gmc. *lapp- (cf. M.Du. lappe, O.H.G. lappa, Ger. Lappen "rag, shred").

1) Barham nehâdan, from barham "one over the other" (for etymology of bar-, → on-; for etymology of ham-, → com-) + nehâdan "to place, put; to set" (Mid.Pers. nihâtan; Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + dā- "to put; to establish; to give," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadāti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give").
2) Barham nešastan, from barham, as above, + nešastan "to sit;" Mid.Pers. nišastan "to sit;" O.Pers. nišādayam [1 sg.impf.caus.act.] "to sit down, to establish," hadiš- "abode;" Av. nišasiiā [1 sg.subj.acr.] "I shall sit down," from nihad- "to sit down," from ni-, as above, + had- "to sit;" PIE base *sed- "to sit;" cf. Skt. sad- "to sit," sidati "sits;" Gk. hezomai "to sit," hedra "seat, chair;" L. sedere "to sit;" O.Ir. suide "seat, sitting;" Welsh sedd "seat;" Lith. sedmi "to sit;" Rus. sad "garden;" Goth. sitan, Ger. sitzen; E. sit.
3) → overlapping.

overlapping
  برهم‌نهاد؛ برهم‌نشست   
barham nahâd; barham nešast

Fr.: empiètement, chevauchement   

An act or instance related to → overlap.

Verbal noun of → overlap.

overload
  بیش‌بار   
biš-bâr

Fr.: surcharge   

Electricity: Any load which exceeds the rated output of a machine, transformer, or other apparatus.

over-; → load.

oversampling
  بیش‌نمونان‌گیری   
biš-nemunângiri

Fr.: suréchantillonnage   

The process of sampling a signal with a frequency higher than the → Nyquist frequency. The signal is said to be oversampled β times, where the oversampling ratio is defined as β = (sampling frequency)/(Nyquist frequency).

over-; → sampling.

overshooting
  فرازد   
farâzad

Fr.: dépassement   

A situation in stellar interiors when the momentum of a particle carries it past its equilibrium point.

over-; shooting, from shoot, from O.E. sceotan "to shoot" (cf. O.N. skjota, Du. schieten, Ger. schießen), from PIE base *skeud- "to shoot, to chase, to throw, to project."

Farâzad, from farâ- "over, over against; foremost; before; onward" (Mid.Pers. fra-; O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā "forth," pouruua- "first"; cf. Skt. pūrva- "first," pra- "before, formerly;" Gk. pro; L. pro; O.E. fyrst "foremost," superlative of fore, E. fore) + zad past stem of zadan "to strike, beat, dash against; to shoot" ( Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers.; Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

overtake
  فرازرسیدن   
farâzrasidan

Fr.: rattraper   

To catch up with in traveling or pursuit; draw even with (Dictionary.com).

over-; → take.

Farâzrasidan, from farâz "upon, above, over," → height, + rasidan "to attain, to arrive," → access.

overtone
  اَبَرتن   
abarton (#)

Fr.: harmonique   

A note of lesser intensity and higher frequency than the fundamental note, and superimposed upon the latter to give a note of characteristic quality. Overtones whose frequencies are an integral multiple of the fundamental are said to form a harmonic series. The fundamental with a frequency f1 is the first harmonic. The frequency 2f1 is the first overtone and so on.

over-; → tone.

overvoltage
  بیش‌ولتاژ   
biš-voltâž

Fr.: surtension   

Voltage which exceeds the normal value between a conductor and earth.

over-; → voltage.

Owl Nebula
  میغِ بوف، ~ِ جغد   
miq-e buf, ~ joqd

Fr.: Nébuleuse de la Chouette   

A planetary nebula in the constellation → Ursa Major, one of the four planetary nebulae in → Messier catalog. It is one of the more complex planetary nebulae known. Its appearance has been interpreted as that of a cylindrical torus shell viewed obliquely, so that the projected matter-poor ends of the cylinder correspond with the Owl's eyes. Also known as M97 or NGC 3587.

Discovered by Pierre Méchain in 1781, the name goes back to Lord Rosse, who first used it in 1848. Owl, from O.E. ule, from P.Gmc. *uwwalon (cf. Du. uil, O.H.G. uwila, Ger. Eule), a diminutive of root *uwwa, which is imitative of an owl's hoot (cf. L. ulula "owl;" Gk. ololyzein "to cry aloud," Skt. uluka- "owl.;" → nebula.

Miq, → nebula; buf "owl;" Mid.Pers. bûf "owl," Av. buxti- "hiss, howling;" cf. Skt. bukk- "to bark, yelp;" Gk. buas "owl;" L. bubo "owl" (Fr. hibou); Arm. bou "owl." Joqd "owl," probably related to jiq "shreak, clamour, cry."

oxidant
  ا ُکسنده   
oksandé (#)

Fr.: oxydant   

The substance which supplies the → oxygen in an → oxidation → reaction. Same as → oxydizing agent agent and → oxidizer.

Agent noun from → oxidize.

oxidation
  ا ُکسایش   
oksâyeš (#)

Fr.: oxydation   

The combination of → oxygen with a substance, or the removal of → hydrogen from it.

Verbal noun of → oxidize.

oxidation number
  شمار ِ اکسایش   
šomâr-e oksâyeš

Fr.: nombre d'oxydation   

The total number of electrons that an atom either gains or loses in order to form a chemical bond with another atom. In other words, the charge that atom would have if the compound was composed of ions. The oxidation number of an atom is zero in a neutral substance that contains atoms of only one element. Same as → oxidation state.

oxidation; → number.

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