An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory



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Number of Results: 397

Fr.: externalisation   

The transferring of certain business functions from internal staff to outside contractors.

Verbal noun from → outsource.

xâgi (#)

Fr.: ovale   

Having the general form, shape, or outline of an egg; ellipsoidal or elliptical.

From M.L. ovalis "egg-shaped," from L. ovum "egg," cognate with Pers. xâg, as below.

Xâgi "egg-shaped," literally "pertaining to an egg," from xâg "egg," Lori, Laki , Pash. "egg," Ossetic ajk "egg," Khotanese āhaa- "egg;" variant xâyé "egg; testicle;" Mid.Pers. xâyak "egg;" Av. aēm/aiam "egg;" cf. Gk. oion, L. ovum, as above; Goth. ada; O.E. æg; Ger. Ei; PIE *owyo-/*oyyo- "egg."

  بیش-، ا َبَر   
biš-, abar-

Fr.: trop, très, en plus; par-dessus, partout   

A prefixal use of over with the sense of "over the limit," "to excess," "too much" to form verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns, e.g. → overabundance; → overdense; → overestimate.

O.E. ofer, from P.Gmc. *uberi (cf. O.S. obar, O.Fris. over, O.H.G. ubar, Ger. über, Goth. ufar "over, above"), from PIE *uper; cf. Gk. hyper, preposition and adverb, "over, beyond, overmuch, above;" cognate with L. super- and Pers. abar-, as below.

Biš- "much, more; in excess; great" (from Mid.Pers. veš "more, longer; more frequently," related to vas "many, much" (Mod.Pers. bas); O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish").
Abar, variant bar "on, upon, up;" Mid.Pers. abar; O.Pers. upariy "above; over, upon, according to;" Av. upairi "above, over," upairi.zəma- "located above the earth;" cf. Gk. hyper- "over, above;" L. super-; O.H.G. ubir "over;" PIE base *uper "over").


Fr.: surexposer   

To expose a detector to too much photons, resulting in saturation.

over-; → expose.


Fr.: surexposition   

Excessive exposure of a detector, → over-expose.

over-; → exposure.


Fr.: surabondance   

The abundance of a chemical element exceeding a reference value, in particular compared to that of the Sun.

over-; → abundance.


Fr.: sur-amortissement   

The condition of a system in which the damping is so large that the system comes to a position of rest without oscillating.

over-; → damping.

overdense matter
  ماده‌یِ بیش‌چگال   
mâdde-ye biš-cagâl

Fr.: matière surdense   

Matter whose density exceeds a reference level.

over-; → dense; → matter.

  ۱) بیش‌بر‌آوردن؛ ۲) بیش‌بر‌آورد   
biš-barâvardan; 2) biš-barâvard

Fr.: 1) surestimer; 2) surestimation   

1) To estimate at too high a value, amount, rate, or the like.
2) An estimate that is too high.

over-; → estimate.

sarriz (#)

Fr.: débordement   

In computers, the condition arising when the result of an arithmetic operation exceeds the capacity of the number representation.

over-; → flow.

Sarriz, from sar, → head, + riz present stem of rixtan "to flow, to pour" (Mid.Pers. rēxtan and rēcitan "to flow;" Av. raēk- "to leave, set free; to yield, transfer," infinitive *ricyā; Mod.Pers; rig in morderig "heritage" (literally, "left by the dead"); cf. Skt. rinakti "he leaves," riti- "stream; motion, course;" L. rivus "stream, brook;" Old Church Slavic rēka "river;" Rus. reka "river;" Goth. rinnan "run, flow," rinno "brook;" O.E. ridh "stream").

overhead time
  زمانِ بالاسر   
zamân-e bâlâsar


The part of observing time at a telescope which is not directly used for science, such as the time spent for detector read-out, changing instruments, focusing, etc.

over-; → head; → time.

Bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height" (variants boland "high, tall, elevated, sublime," borz "height, magnitude" (it occurs also in the name of the mountain chain Alborz), Laki dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Mid.Pers. buland "high;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" cf. Skt. bhrant- "high;" L. fortis "strong" (Fr. and E. force); O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg; PIE base *bhergh- "high") + sar, → head.

  ۱) برهم‌نهادن؛ ۲) برهم نشستن؛ ۳) برهم‌نهاد؛ برهم‌نشست   
1) barham nehâdan; 2) barham nešastan; 3) barham nehâd; barham nešast

Fr.: empiéter, chevaucher   

1) ( To lap over something else; extend over and cover a part of.
2) (v.intr.) To lap over.
3a) Math.: Of sets, to have one or more elements in common.
3b) Chemistry: The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same region of space.
3c) Meteo.: The area common to two successive satellite images or scan swaths along the same or adjacent flight or orbital strips. The amount of overlap is expressed as a percentage of image area or scanned area.

over- + lap, verb from noun lap, from O.E. læppa "skirt or flap of a garment," from P.Gmc. *lapp- (cf. M.Du. lappe, O.H.G. lappa, Ger. Lappen "rag, shred").

1) Barham nehâdan, from barham "one over the other" (for etymology of bar-, → on-; for etymology of ham-, → com-) + nehâdan "to place, put; to set" (Mid.Pers. nihâtan; Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + dā- "to put; to establish; to give," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadāti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give").
2) Barham nešastan, from barham, as above, + nešastan "to sit;" Mid.Pers. nišastan "to sit;" O.Pers. nišādayam [1 sg.impf.caus.act.] "to sit down, to establish," hadiš- "abode;" Av. nišasiiā [1 sg.subj.acr.] "I shall sit down," from nihad- "to sit down," from ni-, as above, + had- "to sit;" PIE base *sed- "to sit;" cf. Skt. sad- "to sit," sidati "sits;" Gk. hezomai "to sit," hedra "seat, chair;" L. sedere "to sit;" O.Ir. suide "seat, sitting;" Welsh sedd "seat;" Lith. sedmi "to sit;" Rus. sad "garden;" Goth. sitan, Ger. sitzen; E. sit.
3) → overlapping.

  برهم‌نهاد؛ برهم‌نشست   
barham nahâd; barham nešast

Fr.: empiètement, chevauchement   

An act or instance related to → overlap.

Verbal noun of → overlap.


Fr.: surcharge   

Electricity: Any load which exceeds the rated output of a machine, transformer, or other apparatus.

over-; → load.


Fr.: surqualifié   

Too highly qualified for a particular job (

over-; → qualified.


Fr.: suréchantillonnage   

The process of sampling a signal with a frequency higher than the → Nyquist frequency. The signal is said to be oversampled β times, where the oversampling ratio is defined as β = (sampling frequency)/(Nyquist frequency).

over-; → sampling.


Fr.: dépassement   

A situation in stellar interiors when the momentum of a particle carries it past its equilibrium point.

over-; shooting, from shoot, from O.E. sceotan "to shoot" (cf. O.N. skjota, Du. schieten, Ger. schießen), from PIE base *skeud- "to shoot, to chase, to throw, to project."

Farâzad, from farâ- "over, over against; foremost; before; onward" (Mid.Pers. fra-; O.Pers. fra- "forward, forth;" Av. frā "forth," pouruua- "first"; cf. Skt. pūrva- "first," pra- "before, formerly;" Gk. pro; L. pro; O.E. fyrst "foremost," superlative of fore, E. fore) + zad past stem of zadan "to strike, beat, dash against; to shoot" ( Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers.; Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike," phonos "murder;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").


Fr.: rattraper   

To catch up with in traveling or pursuit; draw even with (

over-; → take.

Farâzrasidan, from farâz "upon, above, over," → height, + rasidan "to attain, to arrive," → access.

abarton (#)

Fr.: harmonique   

A note of lesser intensity and higher frequency than the fundamental note, and superimposed upon the latter to give a note of characteristic quality. Overtones whose frequencies are an integral multiple of the fundamental are said to form a harmonic series. The fundamental with a frequency f1 is the first harmonic. The frequency 2f1 is the first overtone and so on.

over-; → tone.


Fr.: surtension   

Voltage which exceeds the normal value between a conductor and earth.

over-; → voltage.

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