quality cuni (#) Fr.: qualité 1) The general standard or grade of something. M.E. qualite, from O.Fr. qualite (Fr. qualité), from L. qualitas, from qual(is) "of what sort?" + → -ity. Cuni, from Mid.Pers. cigôn "how?," cigônêh "nature, character," O.Pers/Av. ci- "what, any," collateral stem to ka- "who?, what?" (cf. Skt. ka-; Gk. po-; L. quo-; E. what, who; PIE *qwos/*qwes) + Av. gaona- "color" (Mid.Pers. gônak "kind, species"). |
quanta kuântomhâ (#) Fr.: quanta Plural of → quantum. L. plural of quantum. Kuântomhâ, from kuântom, → quantum + -hâ plural suffix. |
quantification candikard Fr.: quantification The fact or process of quantifying (→ quantification). Verbal noun of → quantify. |
quantifier candigar Fr.: quantificateur 1) 1) A word that indicates the quantity of something. Agent noun of → quantify |
quantify candi kardan Fr.: quantifier 1) To express as a number or amount. 2) In predicate logic: To express by a → symbol how many of the → individuals have the property in common. M.L. quantificare, from to L. quant(us) "how much?" + -ificare "-ify." Candidan infinitive of candi, → quantity + -idan. |
quantitative candimand Fr.: quantitatif Dealing with quantities as well as the nature of the substances under consideration. From L.L. quantitativus, from quanitat- + -ivus "-ive." Candimand, from candi, → quantity, + -mand possession, attribute suffix from Mid.Pers. -mand, -ômand; Av. -mant- (xratumant- "having wisdom," Mod.Pers. xeradmand, arəθamant- "right, true to fact," maδumant- "containing wine, honey, rich in sweets"); cf. Skt. -mant-. |
quantitative analysis ânâlas-e candi-mand Fr.: analyse quantitative The analysis of a chemical sample to derive its precise percentage composition in terms of elements, radicals, or compounds. → quantitative; → analysis. |
quantity candi (#) Fr.: quantité The property of magnitude. M.E., from rom O.Fr. quantite (Fr. quantité), from L. quantitatem (nominative quantitas), from quant(us) "how much?" + -itas, → -ity. Candi "quantity," from Mid.Pers. candih "amount, quantity," from cand "how many, how much; so many, much;" O.Pers. yāvā "as long as;" Av. yauuant- [adj.] "how great?, how much?, how many?," yauuat [adv.] "as much as, as far as;" cf. Skt. yāvant- "how big, how much;" Gk. heos "as long as, until." |
quantization kuântomeš (#) Fr.: quantification 1) The procedure of restricting a continuous quantity to certain discrete values. Verbal noun of → quantize. |
quantize kuântomidan (#) Fr.: quantifier Math.: To restrict a variable quantity to discrete values rather
than to a continuous set of values. From quant(um) + → -ize. From kuântom, → quantum, + -idan infinitive suffix. |
quantized kuântomidé (#) Fr.: quantifié 1) Capable of existing in only one of several states. P.p. of → quantize. |
quantizer kuântomandé (#) Fr.: quantificateur A device with a limited number of possible output values hat can translate an incoming signal into these values or codes for outputting. Agent noun of → quantize. |
quantum kuântom (#) Fr.: quantum The smallest amount of energy that can be absorbed or radiated by matter at a specified frequency (plural quanta). It is a → discrete quantity of energy hν associated with a wave of frequency ν, where h represents the → Planck's constant. Quantum "a particular amount," from L. quantum "how much," neuter singular of quantus "how great." Introduced in physics by Max Planck (1858-1947) in 1900. |
quantum censorship sânsur-e kuântomi Fr.: censure quantique A concept whereby properties of objects vary according to the energy with which they are probed. An atomic system in its → ground state tends to remain as it is if little energy is fed in, betraying no evidence of its internal structure. Only when it is excited into a higher state do complexities emerge. This is the essence of quantum censorship. Thus, below an energy threshold, atoms appear to be impenetrable. Above it, their components can be exposed (F. Wilczek, 2013, Nature 498, 31). → quantum; censorship, from censor, from M.Fr. censor and directly from L. censor "a Romain magistrate who kept the register or census of the citizens, and supervised morals," from censere "to appraise, value, judge," from PIE root *kens- "to speak solemnly, announce;" cf. Av. səngh- (sanh-) "to declare, explain;" Pers. soxan "word, speech;" Skt. śams- "to praise, recite." |
quantum chromodynamics rangtavânik-e kuântomi Fr.: chromodynamique quantique The → quantum field theory that deals with the → strong interaction and the structure of elementary particles in the framework of → quantum theory. The cohesive attraction between the → quarks, that constitute → hadrons, involves the participation of three particles. Each of these particles is assigned a different → color "charge." The existence of these "charges" requires a multiplicity of different messenger particles to communicate the interaction and glue the quarks together. These messengers are called → gluons and there are eight different types. → quantum; → chromodynamics |
quantum computer râyângar-e kuântomi Fr.: ordinateur quantique A type of computer, as yet hypothetical, that uses quantum mechanical laws, such as the → superposition principle and the → quantum entanglement, to perform calculations based on the behavior of particles at the → subatomic level. A quantum computer would gain enormous processing power through the ability to be in multiple states, and to perform tasks using all possible permutations simultaneously. |
quantum defect kâst-e kuântomi Fr.: défaut quantique Of an atomic energy level, the difference between the principal quantum number and the effective quantum number. |
quantum efficiency kârâi-ye kuântomi Fr.: efficacité quantique In a detector, the ratio of the number of photoelectrons released to the number of incident photons at a specific wavelength. → quantum; → efficiency. |
quantum electrodynamics (QED) barqâtavânik-e kuântomi Fr.: électrodynamique quantique The → quantum field theory that describes the properties of → electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with electrically charged matter in the framework of → quantum theory. → quantum; → electrodynamics. |
quantum entanglement ham-gureš-e kuântomi, ham-pici-ye ~ Fr.: emmêlement quantique, intrication ~ A quantum → phenomenon that occurs when two or more particles (→ photons or → atomic particles) that have a common origin remain linked together when they travel apart. A measurement of one of the particles determines not only its → quantum state but the quantum state of the other particle as well. A change in one is instantly reflected in the other. See also → EPT paradox. → quantum; → entanglement. |