1) bâzdisi; 2) bâzdisida,
Fr.: 1) réforme; réformer
1) (n.) The improvement, amendment, or reorganization of something
that is considered to be wrong, ineffective, or unsatisfactory;
e.g. calendar reform.
From M.E. reformen, from M.Fr. reformer, from O.Fr., from L. reformare "to form again, change, alter," from → re- "again" + formare "to form," from forma "form, mold, shape, case," origin unknown.
1) Bâzdisi, from bâz- "again," → re-, +
dis, disé "form, appearance," (variants -diz, -diš (tandis
"body form, like a body; effigy; statute;" mâhdis "moon-like;"
šabdiz "night color; a horse of
dark rusty color;" andiš- "to think, contemplate"); Mid.Pers.
dêsag "form, appearance," dêsidan
"to form, build;" Av. daēs- "to show," daēsa- "sign, omen;"
cf. Skt. deś- "to show, point out;" PIE *deik- "to show"
(cf. Gk. deiknumi "to show,"
dike "manner, custom;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon,
Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach")
+ -i noun suffix.
To alter the course of a wave of light, sound, etc. when the wave crosses the boundary between this medium and another through which it travels at a different speed.
From L. refractus, p.p. of refringere, → refraction.
Verb of šekast, → refraction.
partow-e šekasté (#)
Fr.: rayon réfracté
A → light ray that undergoes a change of velocity and direction, as a result of interaction with the material medium in which it travels.
Fr.: réfraction; à réfraction
manšur-e šekastgar (#)
Fr.: prisme réfractant
A prism that is used as a dispersing element in a spectrograph.
teleskop-e šekasti (#), durbin-e ~ (#)
Fr.: lunette astronomique
A telescope in which an image is formed by the refraction of light through a lens or lens system.
1) Optics: The change of direction which a beam of light undergoes as it
enters a medium of different → refractive index.
From L.L. refractionem (nominative refractio) "a breaking up," from L. refractus, p.p. of refringere "to break up," from re- "back" + combining form of frangere "to break," from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (cf. Goth. brikan, O.E. brecan "to break;" Lith. brasketi "crash, crack").
Šekast, past stem of šekastan "to break, split;" Mid.Pers. škastan "to break;" Av. scind-, scand "to beak, cleave;" Proto-Iranian *skand- "to break, cleave;" PIE sken- "to cut off."
Fr.: indice de réfraction
Of any optical medium, the ratio of the → speed of light in vacuum (c) to that in the medium (v): n = c/v. The refractive index for vacuum, by definition, is 1. The refractive index of air is 1.00029 at standard temperature (25 °C) and pressure (1 atm). The refractive index of a medium depends on the wavelength of refracted wave. With light waves, n increases as the wavelength decreases. → Snell's law can be used to derive n. Same as → index of refraction.
Same as → refracting telescope.
Agent noun of refract, → refraction.
From refract, → refraction + adj. suffix -ory.
Sarkeš "refractory, disobedient, rebellious, stubborn,"
literally "withdrw, remove head," from sar
"head" (variants soru, sorun "horn,"
karnâ "a trumpet-like wind instrument," variant sornâ "a wind instrument;"
Mid.Pers. sar "head," sru "horn;" Av. sarah- "head,"
srū- "horn, nail;" cf. Skt. śiras- "head, chief;"
Gk. kara "head," karena "head, top," keras "horn;"
L. cornu "horn," cerebrum "brain;"
P.Gmc. *khurnaz (Ger. Horn, Du. horen;
cognate with E. horn, as above, from PIE *ker- "head, horn;"
O.E. horn "horn of an animal," also "wind instrument;"
E. horn); PIE base *ker-
"head, horn, top, summit")
+ keš present stem of kešidan, kašidan
"to draw; withdraw, remove" (dialectal Yaqnavi xaš "to draw," Qomi xaš
"streak, stria, mark," Lori kerr "line;"
Av. karš- "to draw; to plow," karša-
"furrow;" Proto-Iranian *kerš-/*xrah- "to draw, plow;"
cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plow;"
Gk. pelo, pelomai "to move, to bustle;" PIE base kwels-
An act or instance of refusing.
Nežan, from ne- "down, below," → ni-, + žan variant of zan present stem of zadan "to hit, strike," variants Zazaki jinen-, Gazi žen-/žent "to beat, hit," Baluchi jat/jan- "to strike, hit," Awromani žanây/-žan- "to shut (the door)," Pashto -žan "to chop, mince," → beat.
M.E. refusen, from M.Fr. refuser, from L. refusus, p.pa. of refundere "to give back," from → re- "back" + fundere "to pour."
Verb from → refusal.
The quality of being → refutable.
Capable or being refuted.
The act or process of refuting.
To prove to be false or erroneous, as an opinion or charge. According to Karl Popper (1902-1994), a theory that cannot be refuted is not scientific. Related words: → falsify, → reject, → repulse, → recoil; → refuse.
From L. refutare "drive back, repress, repel," from → re- "back" + futare "to beat," probably from PIE base *bhau- "to strike down"
Vâkutidan, from vâ- "back," → re-, + kutidan (Kurd., Semnani, Sorxeyi, etc.) "to beat, strike," variant of kubidan, kuftan "to pound, strike, beat;" Mid.Pers. kôftan, kôstan "to beat, strike."
1) To produce anew; bring into existence again; to bring new and more vigorous.
1) Act of regenerating; state of being regenerated.
1) Of, relating to, or characterized by regeneration.